Joomla Website development

 Why Joomla is best for Website development?
Joomla is an award-winning content management system (CMS), which enables you to build Web sites and powerful online applications. Many aspects, including its ease-of-use and extensibility, have made Joomla the most popular Web site software available. Best of all, Joomla is an open source solution that is freely available to everyone.

Website Development company in Bangalore

Joomla is used all over the world to power Web sites of all shapes and sizes. For example:

  • Corporate Web sites or portals
  • Corporate intranets and extranets
  • Online magazines, newspapers, and publications
  • E-commerce and online reservations
  • Government applications
  • Small business Web sites
  • Non-profit and organizational Web sites
  • Community-based portals
  • School and church Web sites
  • Personal or family homepages
  • Medical Website
  • Hospital, Healthcare  and Doctor website

Joomla Features
Joomla features acquainted by web applications are available as Plug-in modules and extensions. Few of the powerful-Plug-ins and extensions available from the open source community are

  • Form Builder
  • Document Management services
  • Photo and streaming video gallery
  • E-Commerce facility and Shopping cart (webstore)
  • Forums Management and Private Chat Software
  • Calendars and Event Management extensions
  • Blogs Management
  • User Registration, user management
  • E-Mail and Newsletter Services
  • Banner advertising systems & May more
  • Corporate portals
  • ecommerce Websites and webstore
  • Organization Intranet and Extranet services
  • Community & social networking Portals

Joomla Development in India
India is becoming hotspot for Joomla development because of Quality development of Joomla based website, extensive range of expertise, Cheap Web Design, Quality Web Design and low cost web development.Joomla Website Development in India is the best way develop you portal with low cost.

Joomla Development India-
Following are the advantages of Joomla website development in India.

  • Cheap Web Design Company in India
  • Quality Web Design in Bangalore ( A Silicon valley of India)
  • Low Cost Web Design in India
  • Affordable Website Designer
  • Expert Outsource Website Designer
  • Cheap web developing in India
  • Low cost web development in India

Are you looking for Joomla Website Development Company? cmsGalaxy is the best place to find a Joomla website development and design services in Asia region specially in India, Mumbai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi region.

Joomla Development Company in Bangalore
There are many good web development company in Bangalore such as cmsGalaxy is Joomla Development Company in Bangalore that supplies services of Joomla website design, website development, flash multimedia, website hosting, software development, graphics design, brochure design, corporate identity and logo design. cmsGalaxy is the Joomla Website Development Company in Bangalore region.

Joomla Development Company in Delhi
New Delhi is another hot destination in India to find Top Joomla Development Company in Delhi. cmsGalaxy is a professional web development company proposing custom Joomla web application development services which are aimed at proposing our clients with web solutions that fit their business process requirements. Our team members are highly skilled and are capable of developing any kind of web application in Joomla Development. cmsGalaxy is the best in Joomla Development Company in Delhi region. cmsGalaxy provides extensive support in terms of Joomla development, customization and highly respected Joomla Website Development Company in Delhi region.

Joomla Development Company in Mumbai
Mumbai is business capital of India and this is another hot destination for Joomla development. cmsGalaxy also covers area provide extensive services in this area. cmsGalaxy undertake E-Commerce Website, Online Shopping Portal, Web Applications Development, Intranet and Extranet Development, Corporate Web Solutions, Website Development, Web Audit, Website Outsourcing and Offshore Web Designers work and one stop service provider and Joomla Development Company in Mumbai. cmsGalaxy has contributed many customized Joomla extention to the Joomla Extention directory and this is top Joomla website Development Company in Mumbai region.

Joomla Development Company in India
cmsGalaxy at Semaphore assist you with Joomla content management system required by your business and develop a customized web portal using Joomla and required Joomla extensions. Joomla Website Development Company in India has Quality Web Design, Affordable Website Designer, low cost web development and cheap web developing.

cmsGalaxy Services:
We have our development center in India to offer cost-effective and quality outsourcing services like Joomla template customization, Joomla website Development,  Hire Joomla developer to the clients located world wide mostly from Europe, Uk, USA, , BeNeLux, Belgium, Israel,  Luxembourg, Canada, Netherlands, Australia, Denmark, Greece, Germany, Turkey, Italy, Singapore, Spain, India, UAE, France, Cuba, Switzerland, Norway and many more.

cmsGalaxy covers wide range of region in India and provide services for following region and city for Joomla development:

  • Joomla Development in India
  • Joomla Development Company
  • Joomla Development Company in Bangalore
  • Joomla Development Company in Delhi
  • Joomla Development Company in Mumbai
  • Joomla Development Company in India


Joomla Development in India

Website Development company in Bangalore

Welcome to cmsGalaxy, a leading company in Joomla Development India, One Roof for all your internet portal design, development and Joomla web development requirements. We have talent to develop and design website solutions that can meet client and customer requirements. Our Joomla Development Company in India provides broad variety of services where you can Hire Joomla Developer for Joomla Web Development, Joomla Template Customization and Joomla Component Development Services to be used from basic web application development to big portal development.

Joomla! is one of the most advanced and powerful Open Source Content Management Systems on the planet. It is used all over the world for everything from simple websites to complex corporate applications. Joomla! is scalable, simple to manage, and reliable. Joomla! is a free, PHP & MYSQL based content management system for publishing and managing content on the web and intranets Joomla! Includes features such as page caching to improve performance, web indexing, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, newsflashes, blogs, forums, polls, calendars, website searching, and language internationalization.

We provide our services in around the globe but Joomla professional are based in following location.

  • Joomla Developer in India
  • Joomla Developer India
  • Joomla Developer in Bangalore
  • Joomla Developer in Delhi
  • Joomla Developer in Mumbai
  • Joomla Developer in India

At cmsGalaxy we believe in great partnerships that delivers great results. Determining your business goals can help us not only in choosing the right application for you but also in delivering effective expertise.
At cmsGalaxy our Joomla Developers use Joomla CMS to design basic as well as complex corporate solutions and applications. Few of the powerful-Plug-ins and extensions available from the open source community are

  • Form Builder
  • Document Management services
  • Photo and streaming video gallery
  • E-Commerce facility and Shopping cart (webstore)
  • Forums Management and Private Chat Software
  • Calendars and Event Management extensions
  • Blogs Management
  • User Registration, user management
  • E-Mail and Newsletter Services
  • Banner advertising systems & May more

We at cmsGalaxy assist you with Joomla content management system required by your business and develop a customized web portal using Joomla and required Joomla extensions.

Our Joomla services include:

  • Custom Design Templates
  • Custom Modules Development
  • Custom Components Development
  • Design Integration
  • Module Installation
  • Custom Modification and Customization
  • Maintenance work for Joomla based portals and websites

cmsGalaxy uses the collaboration of Web design, Website development and Marketing (SEO) services to elevate your online presence into a living inhalation Joomla website that has a capacity to grow your business.
Our wide array of service includes Joomla Web Design, Joomla template Customization & integration, Joomla Customization India, Joomla Component Development, Custom Module Development, Virtuemart integration, hire Joomla developer, Joomla component integration, Joomla Development India, Joomla Website Maintenance and many more

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Website Design using Joomla content management System

Creative + Unique+ User Friendly + Professional = cmsGalaxy

Website Development company in Bangalore

Our skilled designers have gathered their many years of experience at joomla Web Development and Joomla website design and working with user friendly and cross cultural web design patterns has taught them to produce creative, unique and yet professional websites where users like to revisit every now and then.

Joomla Website Development

A website which gives you a power to manage and update content or images on your own is what is known as Joomla. At cmsGalaxy, we align the best resource depending on your website requirements to fulfill the job with faster turn around time.

Joomla SEO Service

One of an important factor of an online business is its marketing and success of an online business depends on how good you are in marketing your website but at cmsGalaxy you don’t need to be anxious about it as such we have the professionals available to address it properly, so you do what you do the best and keep online marketing on our shoulders. cmsGalaxy provides quality Search Engine Optimization work to their clients so clients can be benefitted in business.
Open Source Development has developed varied solutions keeping Joomla! as the base and integrating with it components and plug-ins in order to develop complex solutions to meet the clients’ requirements. We provide extensive solution for the following area…

  • Private Health Record
  • Telemedicine
  • Medical Information Systems
  • Healthcare Center Management System
  • Health System Management
  • Medical Practice Management Software
  • Website / Portal Solution
  • Community Portals
  • Online Shopping Applications
  • Custom Design Templates
  • Corporate Websites or portals
  • Corporate intranets and extranets
  • Online magazines, newspapers, and publications
  • E-commerce and online reservations
  • Small business Web sites
  • School and church Web sites
  • Personal or family homepages
  • Medical, Hospital, Healthcare  and Doctor website
  • Joomla Solution Module Design and Cutomization
  • Joomla Solution Plugins Design and Customization
  • Joomla Solution Component Design and Customization
  • Joomla Solution Template Design and Customization

Community Portals
Open Source Development has made extensive use of Joomla!’s Community builder extension suite to develop community websites for clients. The solutions provided enable the client’s administrators to maintain and manage their online user communities. The solutions developed by us provide the administrators with the flexibility to capture customized user information during registration. Front-end users are provided the option to create profiles, upload them to the website and browse through other user profiles.

Online Shopping Applications
cmsGalaxy has developed various online storefront for various clients using VirtueMart as one of the more popular shopping cart components available with Joomla!. The shopping cart solutions developed by us provide the clients with robust applications that enable them to easily operate their storefront. The solution administrators can maintain and manage detailed product catalogs; and track and process online orders.  The solutions provided by us also include search options for customers to browse through products and book orders online.

Online Image Galleries
Various online image galleries have been developed by us using the Image Gallery component of Joomla! The solution enables users to upload and add images to galleries across categories. The front-end users i.e. Surfers are provided with the option to browse through the galleries, post their comments on the images and rate images within a gallery.

Site Maps
The indexing component of Joomla! has been used to develop and integrate extensive site maps, content indexes and visual maps. The solution developed enables our clients to showcase visual maps on their website. Administrators can define categories, on the basis of which users can navigate, zoom to specific areas within the map.

Corporate Websites
Open Source Development has developed a whole range of websites for various corporate clients. The solutions developed by us have provided the clients with an online platform to share information about their services and products. The dynamic Joomla! based websites provide clients with an automated system to publish and manage content appearing on the website.

Online Magazines websites
Using Joomla! as a base we have developed online editions for various magazines.? The solutions enable the publishers to easily upload and showcase the articles that are available in their offline editions. Several components such as the Subscription Manager were integrated enabling website users to send in their subscriptions for the offline edition of the magazine. Our solutions provided publishers with an easy and effective mechanism to increase the reach of their magazines thereby leading to an increased subscriber base.

Micro-site Management websites
We used Joomla! to develop a micro-site management solution for our client. The solution enabled the client to offer its customers (various business companies) the option to register with them and create their individual micro-sites to advertise their services. Buyers can search and browse through the micro-sites and send in their queries.


Website design and website development Outsourcing to India

Why Outsource to India?

Website Development company in Bangalore

India is the one of the world’s largest pool of scientific and technical talent; India is a logical choice for outsourcing.  There are many other factors such as cheap labor cost compares to another country, qualified skill human resources.Outsourcing in website design and development has seen tremendous growth.
With the advent of globalization, more and more jobs are being outsourced to India. The outsourcing trend has brought with it a vast number of opportunities to India. So why are people outsourcing jobs to India? Let’s find out why job outsourcing has become so popular.

What can be outsourced to India?

At a glance see IT related outsourcing options to India. This list, although not extensive, website design and development services , web site promotion, web hosting, cd presentations, cd catalogs, banner design, web presentations and intros, web and Business Image Solutions.
Outsourcing to India offers major advantages for any types of website development or software development solution such as:

•   High quality
•   Skillful workforce
•   Technological agility
•   Flexibility
•   Cost effectiveness

India Offers High-Quality Services

Outsourcing to India is now more about high quality rather than cost. Indian companies are fast scaling up to match or surpass international quality standards and are ensuring that they stay ahead through stable quality systems and continuous quality improvement.

High Rise Bangalore

Bangalore has good infrastructure, with large floor space and great telecom facilities. With a huge number of IT/ITES companies, R&D and product development facilities, and call centers mushrooming the demand for commercial space has risen drastically. India is becoming preferred destination for low cost website design and website development. Because of Cheap labor and lots of skilled worker availability, India and Indian cities like Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune and Delhi is becoming hub for outsource web development and design at cheap and affordable rate.

Bangalore based website Design and Development Company

Low cost web development and web design in Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune, delhi and other cities. India is hot destination for outsourced website design and website development at cheap development and design cost.

Mumbai based website Development and Design Company

Website design and development in Indian cities like Delhi, Bangalore, Pune and Mumbai is cheaper compare to another country due co cheap labor cost and easy availability of skills.

Outsourcing Programming Services in website design and development

Outsourcing Programming Services provides its customers a wide range of offshore outsourcing services to cater to your business requirements. Our broad array of Website Development Services include

•   Database driven websites
•   Business portal websites
•   E-commerce solutions – Shopping cart, Online payments
•   Web based applications – Search engines, Chat, Email
•   Offshore software development
•   Creative website design – Static, Dynamic and Flash base website design

At cmsGalaxy, we have the skills to turn your entire online venture into a huge success. Are you looking for a website designing in Bangalore, India with real style and visual appeal? We have the skills and commitment to make that a reality.

cmsGalaxy Bangalore website designing company, ecommerce website design, custom web site design, website design tips, designing a web site, graphic design website, website design and hosting, professional web site design, website design portfolio, affordable website design. At this knowledge age, knowledge is the key and our knowledge base in latest web designing India technologies, search engine algorithm, global web designing practices etc makes the end product contemporary and futuristic. We deliver neat, easy-to-use and business friendly website designing, a web site that drives customers into it. In the domain of website design India we have served almost every segment of the industry.

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SurgeryPlanet is a Pioneer, leader and the most trusted name in the Medical Tourism Industry. We are a US based, global Medical Tourism company, with healthcare facilitation services in 44 countries through our network of over 1000 hospitals, clinics and health resorts. Our headquarters is in Concord near San Francisco bay in California with offices in major cities around the globe. We specialize in arranging and facilitating medical care for  patients  from  every country including US, UK, Canada, Middle-Eastern and African countries. Our network hospitals  are in 120 destinations including  Thailand, Mexico, Belgium, India, Germany, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Singapore, USA and Brazil. We are the only Medical Tourism company to provide door to door, individually tailored service to our clients with a multitude of exclusive services. Our team has a combined total of over 100 years of experience in the medical care, travel and medical facilitation industry. SurgeryPlanet and its partner companies have been serving our clients in this industry since 2006 and we are proud of achieving a 100% customer satisfaction rating. Our growth is measured by the number of satisfied clients we serve and  not measured by our revenue.

List of Hospitals and Doctors:,com_sitemap/Itemid,272/

Survival of life on earth depends on the availability of natural resources. The use of these resources has an impact on the environment around us. Water usage leads to its pollution. Coal, oil, minerals and metals are being depleted by increasing usage. A high level of irrigation, unless accompanied by proper drainage, make the soil saline or water-logged. Combustion of fuels results in greater accumulation of carbon dioxide leading to global warming. This use and depletion of resources has an Impact on our environment. About sixty per cent of the land area in the States is under one or other type of agriculture. This is above the national average of 51%. A portion of this land is marginal for agriculture and requires higher inputs but gives lower yields. As subsistence farming is economically nonviable, this land is soon degraded and the soil is eroded. Land that cannot support agriculture could well be suitable for forestry and pasture.

Irrigated land has been rendered saline or water-logged due to water use. Thus in the upper Krishna Project about 71,000 ha, have become either saline or alkaline. In the command area of the Tungabhadra reservoir about 33,000 ha, are either saline or water logged; 24,455 ha are saline or waterlogged in the Malaprabha and Ghataprabha (command) area and 16,500 ha, in the Cauvery basin. Remedial measures are being undertaken in some areas at a high cost.

Pasture lands in the State have been steadily decreasing. During 1956 to 1983, pastures came down by 31% while animal units increased by 30%. Overgrazing is bound to follow together with compacting of the land cattle paths. As a result of the expansion of agriculture and its allied activities, the natural vegetation in the plains has suffered the most. In fact the characteristic vegetation of this habitat namely the scrub forest has almost vanished. The wild life too has practically been wiped out in this tract except in isolated pockets. Similarly in the Western Ghats, the fragmentation of natural vegetation has already reached alarming proportions and this would have serious consequences on the rate of extinction of species. The wild life has been decimated in many parts of the State and its numbers are rapidly dwindling due to loss of habitat, constant fragmentation and illegal killing.

The forest areas in the Western Ghats are being converted into plantations of cardamom, cocoa, rubber, coffee and tea. Simultaneously timber and fuel wood species are replacing the rich tropical forests. These plantations while being commercially remunerative, can cause great harm to the bio-diversity and habitat of the flora andfauna. Vast forest areas have been submerged by hydel projects on the west-flowing rivers. Resettlement of the people displaced by development projects has further reduced the forest area by honey combing the forests with human settlement. Silting is the most serious problems with tanks and reservoirs. The capacity of the tanks goes on decreasing every year, the tank irrigating less and less land, ultimately becoming altogether useless for irrigation when the sluices can no longer be opened. The solution proposed for the silting problem is afforestation of the catchment to the extent possible, banning cultivation in the foreshore lands and construction of small checkdams upstream to trap the silt.

The exploitation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources is likely to have an environmental impact. Increased production of minerals will vary with the location, method and magnitude of operations. Area surrounding the mines will also be affected by the works as well as workers. So the extent and mode of mining must be regulated by ecological considerations for the long term utilisation of resources.

Pollution is the introduction of extraneous materials into environment adversely affecting its normal use. Water pollution is caused mainly by discharge of waste waters into natural water courses and water bodies. Water is being polluted by industries and human habitations. Industrial effluents can cause organic, chemical and even hazardous pollution. In order to control this pollution, effluent standards have been prescribed industry-wise. Thermal pollution caused by water with temperatures above the ambient water temperature is also to be controlled. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted
by Parliament on 23rd March 1974, The greatest water pollution in the State is caused by Urban Agglomerations. It is obligatory on the authorities to treat the sewage before discharging it.
However 139 of the 172 Municipalities do not have functional underground drainage or sewage treatment plants.

March 15th, 2010FORESTS in Karnataka

Kamataka State has a geographical area of 1,91,791 sq km of which 38,284 (19.96 per cent) is under the control of the Forest Department. The forests are classified as reserved (28,689.99, protected (3,930.70 sq. km), unclassed (5,230.99 sq. km), village (124.2 and private (308.42 sq. km) forests. The unclassed areas include C and D class lands which are mostly barren, transferred from the Revenue department. The percentage of forest area to geographical area in the State is less the all-India average of about 23%, and 33% prescribed in the National Forest policy. The area under forests in the neighbouring States is as follows : Andhra pradesh 62 lakh ha (9% of the total area of the Country), Maharashtra 54 lakh ha (8%), Tamilnadu 22 lakh ha (3%) and Kerala 11 lakh ha (2%).

About two lakh ha. of forest area is lost for non-forestry purposes since 1956 to 1986-87 and the details are as follows: For hydroelectric purposes : 22,194 ha, electricity lines 1,688 ha, roads: 330 ha, tanks – 35,840 ha, townships- 1,791 ha, mining -42,676 ha, agriculture – 67,217 ha, rehabilitation – 25, 820 ha, other purposes 6,357 ha and total 2,03,913 ha. The outturn of major forest produce for the year 1991-92 is as follows: 1) Timber – a) Rosewood 4,522 M3, b)Teak -3,376 M3 c)Other kinds of timber – 41,253 M3 2)Pulpwood – 213 M3 4)Matchwood – 131 M3, 5)Sawn Timber – 618 M3 6) Timber in round
pole – 32,067 M3 7)Firewood – 1,66,039 M3, 8)Bamboo – 19,299 M.T. and Sandalwood 1,418 M3.

Though 20% of the land area is classified as forests (3,86 million ha) in the State, only about 11% is well wooded. The remaining area is in different stages of degradation. The State is facing shortage of fuel wood, fodder and timber as the demand has increased considerably due to the increase in population of both human and cattle. The forests in the State are managed as per the prescriptions of the working plans which are prepared for periods of 10 to 15 years after taking into consideration the type of forests, the condition of the existing crop, the demand for various forest produce and the requirements of the area for maintenance of ecological balance. Karnataka Government has established many National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries to protect important species. The following is the list of National parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries (WS) and their year of establishment.

There are five National Parks and 21 wildlife sanctuaries covering an extent of 6,360 Sq. km. of the total forest area. They comprise of evergreen to scrub type of forests thus forming a network of representative ecosystem to conserve endangered species of plants as well as animals and birds. As per the 1989 census of the larger mammals, there were 257 tigers, 283 panthers, 4,418 elephants and 5,473 bisons. As per the Census of Wildlife population conducted during 1997-98 there were 395 tigers, 1,360 gaur, 6,185 elephants, 817 panthers, 2,324 bears, 15,760 wild bears, 23,850 deer, 8,484 bisons, 4,998 sambars and 957 foxes.

March 15th, 2010FLORA in Karnataka

Karnataka State has a rich and varied vegetation resulting from several lines of plant migration conditioned by climate, soil and topography. Biotic factors have in many areas modified the original climaxes evolved through the centuries. Considering topography, bio-climate and soil, the vegetation of Karnataka could be grouped under the following four categories viz, 1) Littoral vegetation, 2) West coast tropical vegetation. 3) Upland deciduous vegetation and 4) Southern tropical montane vegetation. Littoral vegetation : There are two types of littoral vegetation in Karnataka. The first is terrestrial on the sand dunes and the second, halophytic along estuaries. The limitations imposed by the scorching sun, shifting sands and salt-laden winds are overcome by special plants called psammophytes. The dunes above the tide mark are held down by a number of sand binders. Sundews and bladder worts often form a seasonal carpet on the wet sands of the rear beach.

Limited mangrove formations occur in the riverine estuaries where the salinity gradient rises rapidly towards the sea. The best examples of halophytic vegetation are near Kundapur and Gokarna. It is mostly of the Rhizophora – Avicenia – Bruguiera type. The trees and shrubs have to overcome the restrictions of a marshy saline habitat with strong tidal currents and fluctuations in water level as well as the asphyxiating conditions of a slushy soil. These littoral plant formations have ecological role in the balance of nature. The psammophytes help in preventing the sand of the beaches from being blown landwards on to agricultural lands and human habitations. They also protect the beaches for their recreational value. Mangroves stabilise the river embankments against erosion. They afford breeding ground to several fishes and other marine animals.

Moist Deciduous Coastal Vegetation: The natural vegetation in this region immediately to the east of the coastline is of the secondary moist deciduous type. It is sometimes considered a degraded stage of an evergreen climax. In the broader coastal low land of Dakshina Kannada, the Hopea – Syzygium- Holigama series is usually found with dense understorey of shrubs like Grewia, Ixora and Psychotria. Lianas especially Hugonia mystax and Uvaria riorum are frequent. The secondary moist deciduous forests are better preserved towards the foothill of the Ghats. The biotic factor which is high in the vicinity of the Coastal urban centres is less towards the Ghats.

West Coast Tropical Evergreens: The lower slopes and valleys of the Ghats present fine examples of the West Coast tropical evergreen forests. These close canopy forests are nurtured by the heavy seasonal precipitation to form a climax vegetation. Erect buttressed trunks, unbranched for 20 or more metres fan out to meet the contiguous tree tops. There are several variations in the dominant canopy trees. The commonest association is of EUpterocarpus ~ Kingiodendron-Vataria between 70 to 600 metres above mean sea level. There are several other plant forms in these forests. The biological diversity and its
spatial distribution within the forest apportions solar energy as effectively in the conversion of water and carbon-di-oxide into life sustaining organic compounds.Upland moist Deciduous Vegetation: The decreasing rainfall on the leeward side of the mountain gives rise to another climax type – the upland moist deciduous vegetation. While in leaf, the canopy of these forests is dense, during the dry months there is a short period of leaf fall to avoid loss of water due to transpiration. Flowering of the trees occurs during the leafless period. This moist deciduous belt running from Belgaum to Kodagu is the habitat of the Tectona – Dillenia – Lagerstroemia – Terrrtinalia series which include teak, matti, kanagalu, nondi, which are local names. Extensive areas on the eastern fringe of the Ghats were once covered with clumps of bamboos. Upland dry deciduous vegetation : The bio climate of the eastern part of the Maidan permits a climax dry deciduous vegetation in several protected areas. The canopy is open and the trees leafless during the driest months.
Flowering and fruiting are generally far advanced before the first flush of new leaves appears with the conventional showers in April-May.

Upland thorn and scrub : There are several parts of Chitradurga, Davanagere, Bellary, Raichur, Koppal, Gulbarga and Bidar districts where broad leaved deciduous forests give place to armed trees with tiny leaflets. Some remaining patches of these forests are made-up of Acacia, Albizia and Hardwickia. (Jali, Bilwara, ennemara being local names). The Maidan is dotted with numerous irrigation tanks usually supporting an interesting aquatic Jlora, Southern Tropical Montane Vegetation: An altitudinal variation of the tropical evergreens, is found above 1,500 metres especially at Kudremukh, and in the Bababudan and Biligirirangan Hills. This vegetation of grassy meadows and low wooded patches forms the Southern Tropical Montane Vegetation. The grassy mountain meadows present a quick succession of herbs that appear in short lived profusion. A good part of the wet forests has been greatly altered by biotic factors. The vegetation dynamics in Karnataka indicate several changes in the natural vegetation due to biotic factors especially human intervention. Inhabited coastal areas present a thick canopy of coconut trees. The climax formations of dry types of vegetation with a distinct canopy, an understorey of shrubs and a ground cover of herbs are confined to a few inaccessible pockets or to areas of reserved forests. Felling for fuel and grazing especially by goats threatened even these remnants of the original plant cover. The forest unless covered is slowly converted into grasslands with scattered trees. In some areas forests have been cleared and low lying areas are converted into paddy fields while the hilly terrain is often planted with plantation crops.

March 15th, 2010FAUNA in Karnataka

The State of Karnataka has a rich heritage of flora and fauna. The hill chain of Western Ghats is the only part of the State to retain some semblance of its natural biological heritage. This last refuge of the native fauna is subjected to rapid decimation with the coining up of several hydro-electric and irrigation projects, mining, the accelerated pace of forest exploitation and the increasing demand of land for plantation and crop husbandry. The area under forests in Karnataka today amounts to 38.72 lakh hectares i.e. 20 per cent of the total land area of the State. With the notable exception of Bonnet Macaque, which is under widespread religious protection throughout the State, the larger wild mammals are almost confined to the forest areas. The wildlife bearing forest areas of Karnataka are divided into six regions viz, Coastal region, crestline of the Western Ghats, Malnad, Old Mysore Plateau, Kollegal hills and the Maidan. The natural distribution of animals is largely determined by vegetation.

Region-I – Coastal Region : The district of Uttara Kannada and parts of Belgaum constitute the northern-most sector of the hill tracts of Karnataka. These hilly tracts have vegetation ranging from evergreen to dry deciduous types. Due to Kalinadi hydro-electric project and a great deal of Iron and Manganese ore mining, the habitat is highly fragmented and the forest cover is greatly disturbed. In this region, as per observed data, the gaur are scattered, sambar are much more widely distributed. Wild pig is most abundant and spotted deer is seen in majority of areas. Elephants are found scattered over a wide region. The Carnivores-tiger, panther and wild dog occur in low populations. This region was extremely rich in wild life in the past especially tiger and gaur.

Region II – Crestline of Western Ghats: This region lies south of Uttar Kannada. There is a narrow belt of forest following this crestline of Ghats. The vegetation ranges from evergreen to moist deciduous. Most of the major animals occur in this region but their population on the whole is very poor. Only a few isolated herds of elephants are found here. The gaur and sambar are frequently seen while the spotted deer occurs sporadically. Barking deer and sloth bear are also reported to be present. Wild pig is omnipresent. The Canivores – tiger, panther and wild dog are present but their occurrence rating is very low. This region is a poor habitat for most large herbivores and consequently for carnivores.

Region III – Malnad : This is characterised by dry and moist deciduous vegetation. The area is marked by conspicuous hills like the Bababudangiri range. This region has one of the best wildlife concentrations only second to Mysore plateau in the State, harbouring populations of elephants, gaur, sambar, spotted deer, wild pig etc. The anthropogenic pressures over this area are much less and hence the wildlife is somewhat less molested. The presence of perennial rivers, reservoirs and plenty of bamboos, grass and other fodder species with a moderate rainfall makes this region an ideal habitat for elephants.

Region IV – Mysore plateau : The western edge of Mysore Plateau, flanked on three sides by the southern-most ranges of the Sahyadris, Nilgiris and eastern spur of hills towards the Biligirirangan Hills, is an undulating plain and is covered by moist and dry deciduous forests. This area has the richest wildlife concentrations in South India, harbouring large herds of elephants, spotted deer, wild pig.^wild dog, sloth bear, gaur, sambar and occassionally tiger and cats.

Region V : Kollegal Hills : This hilly area is an eastern spur of the Western Ghats. Apart from the moist deciduous or semi-evergreen forests on these hills, the rest of the region is covered by dry deciduous forest mostly degraded into scrub. Elephant, sambar, spotted deer and wild pig occur throughout this region. The wild dogs have fairly extensive distribution, though tiger, gaur and panther are much more restricted. Almost all the wild life species occur in this region in small numbers except elephants.

Region VI – Maidan : There is very little forest in the Maidan areas on the Deccan Plateau and whatever is left is in highly degraded form. Ranebennur is notable for the occurrence of good herds of black bucks. Wolves are becoming rare but have been reported from several places in this plains.

March 15th, 2010About Karnataka

Karnataka has a rich heritage, inspiring its people to create a bright future. With its special geographical location full of variety-its rivers, hills, valleys, plains, forests and resources-the State is known for its tourist and industrial potential. Its long history of over 2,000 years has left many beautiful forts, tanks, temples, mosques and towns of historical importance to the posterity. These old towns have grown to be industrial, commercial and educational centres. They are provided with all modern facilities. Bordered by the Western Ghats with tall peaks and lush greenery in the west, the tableland is fertile because of its black soil and river and tank irrigation facilities. The coastal strip to the west of the Ghats is renowned for its silvery beaches and rich green paddy fields. Karnataka has rich religious and artistic traditions. The land has been
described by a poet in a stone record in the 15th Century in following words:

A mine of good discipline,
The dwelling place of Brahma,
The land which had acquired great fortune,
The birthplace of learning and wealth,
The true home of unequalled splendid earnestness
Thus distinguished in many ways
Shone the lovely Karnata Country.

The temples of antiquity speak of the piety of their devotees. The agraharas and mathas spread all over vouch to the scholarly pursuits to which people were attached. The hero stones strewing the land speak of the heroic traits of the warrior race of antiquity. Long traditions of growing cotton are clear evidence to once flourishing rich textile industry. The ports along the coast remind one of the rich overseas trades that flourished through them. The black soil plains speak of its agricultural potential. The State’s human resources with racial and religious varieties and professional skills promise to make it a hub of industriousness.

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