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Tourism in Karnataka

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Tourism in Karnataka

Adichunchanagiri in Mandya dt, 21 km. from Nagamangala and 66 km from Mandya is a noted centre of Bhairava worship on a hill. It was formerly a Natha Pantha centre and is now a seat of the Swamy of the Vokkaliga community. The Gangadhareshwara Temple of the place attracts piligrims in thousands during its annual Jatra. The place has a Peacock Sanctuary too. The Matha provides accomodation in its guest house to visitors. The place can be reached by bus too.

Aihole is a great centre of Badami Chalukyan art. The temples numbering over 100 of different styles were raised from the 6th to the 12th century and many experiments in temple construction were carried out, making Percy Brown to call it “one of the cradles of temple architecture.” It is 510 km. from Bangalore, 24 km. from Hungund and can be reached from Bagalkote. It has a Jaina and
a Vedic rock-cut shrine, both of about 6th Century A.D., the former having fine Tirthankara images in the round and the latter Nataraja dancing, Matrikas surrounding him, in life size but in relief. The place has the Durga Temple which is apsidal and the Ladkhan which is square in plan. Other important temples are Huchimalligudi, Gaudaragudi and Chakragudi, all in a variety of designs. The Meguti on a hill is a Jaina basti which has the famous Aihole inscription of Pulikeshin II and also a Buddhist two-storied rock-cut shrine below it. The temples here are full of plastic art, and to a student of temple
architecture a visit to Aihole is a must. Siddanakolla near it has a beautiful Lajj’agowri sculpture in a rare sitting posture near a small pond, besides the Siddesvara Temple of Badami Chalukya period.

Amritapura in Tarikere taluk Chikmagalur dt. 247 km. away from Bangalore is known by its Amriteshwara temple (Hoysala) built by Amrita Dandanayaka during the 12th century. It has a star shaped ground plan, and like many other Hoysala temples, is full of plastic art, and is one of the finest in the style. The earliest inscription found in the temple is of 1197 and the temple has a wonderful life-size image of seated Saraswathi.

Anegundi is to the North of Hampi across the Tungabhadra and is to be reached by crossing the river with basket boats from Talawar gatta (Humpi) or by road from Ganagavati. It has the famous Huchappayan Matha, now in ruins with fine Chalukyan glazing pillars and worn out paintings on its ceiling. The ruined palace of the last rulers, Aravidu dynasty, is seen here and their descendants also stay at Anegundi. There is Navavrindavanas or the Samadhis of nine Madhwa Saints in an island Kuregadde of the Tungabhadra. There is the cave shrine of Sheshashayi, the Ranganatha temple, Gagan mahal, an interesting Indo-Saracenic structure and a Jaina basti which has a wonderful decorative Chalukyan door frame.

Annigeri in Dharwad district, 30 km. from Hubli on the Hubli-Gadag line has the famous Amriteshwara temple of Kalyana Chalukya period. It was the headquarters of the once famous rich province of Belvola-300. It was the last capital of Chalukya Someshwara IV (1184-89). It is the birth place of great Kannada Poet Pampa and has a Jain basadi of Parshwanatha. A partially ruined
Banashankari Temple and seven mosques are seen at the place, in addition to two Veerashaiva Mathas. Near the railway station is an ancient Veerabhadra temple with some astounding erotic figures.

Aralaguppe is a place in Tumkur dt., six km. from Banasandra railway station where there is a famous Kalleshwara temple in the Ganga-Nolamba style of the 9th century A.D. Its ceiling has wonderful dancing Shiva sculpture with musical accompanists and eight Dikpalas surrounding him with all their paraphernalia. There is a Chennakeshava temple of the Hoysala style. The image of Vishnu in the garbhagriha is magnificent. There are four Ganga temples at the place. Arasikere, a commercial town and a railway junction in Hassan district, famous for its coconut gardens and is 41 km. from Hassan and 176 km. from Bangalore. The Kattameshwara temple here, is also called Chandramoulishwara 372 A Handbook of Karnataka and referred to as Kalmeshwara in a record of 1220 A.D. It is a fine Hoysala monument with a rare polygonal frontal mantapa with special design. There is a fine Haluvokkalu Temple. There is also Sahasrakuta Jinalaya built in 1220 in the Hoysala style by Racharasa, a minister of Ballala II. Malekal Tirupathi near Arasikere has a Venkataramana temple visited by many devotees.

Avani in Kolar dt. is 13 km. from Mulabagal, and the place has a Shankara Matha and a wonderful complex of temples of the Nolambas who were ruling from Henjeru or Hemavati in the Madakshira taluk in Andhra Pradesh during the A.D. 9th and 10th Centuries. An early record calls it as the ‘Gaya of the South’. According to a legend, sage Valmiki had his Ashrama here, and Sita gave birth to the twins at the same spot. There are Rameshwara, Lakshmaneshwara, Bharateshwara, Shatrughneswara and also Sita and Subrahmanya temples. The Lakshmaneshwara, here is full of plastic art and
the most ornate. On the hill here Agni Tirtha, a pond, and the Ekantha Ramaswamy Temple are also seen.

Bagalkote now the head quarters of the newly formed dt. likely to be submerged due to Almatti dam, has been planned to shift to a near by place called Navanagara, is famous from early times and was the capital of Bagadage - 70 under the Later Chalukyas, later ruled by the Adilshahis and the Marathas. Now it is famous for its Cement Production.

Badami the ancient capital of the Early Chalukyas is 500 km. from Bangalore and 113 km. from Bijapur, was also known as ‘Vatapi’ and ‘Badavi’. Its fort was raised by Chalukya Pulakeshin I in 543. He made it his capital and it lasted till 753 A.D. The place is known for its wonderful rock-cut shrines of Vedic tradition. The fort was renovated by Hyder, and Tipu-built a fine mosque here. The first rock-cut shrine has 18 armed unique Nataraja, at the outset engaged in Tandava dancing, a remarkable figure. On the ceiling of one of the caves is Nagaraja and Vidhyadhara couple. Figures of funny Kubjas or dwarfs are seen in variety of poses. There are more than life-size Bhuvaraha and Trivikram figures in the II cave. The third cave is the most important and it is called the Vaishnava cave caused to be wrought in 578 A.D. by Mangalesha and here are figures of Paravasudeva seated on coiled serpent, Bhoovaraha, Narasimha and Harihara, all engraved in vigourous style, and are taller than
life-size figures. There are also bracket figures with secular scenes on the pillars in the rock-cut shrines. The cave at the top is a Jaina, full of figures of Thirthankaras, Yakshas and Yakshis. The Gommata figure here has long locks. The ‘Upper Shivalaya’ on the rocky fort on the other bank of Agasthya pond has been identified as an earlier Vaishnava Temple, ‘ Malegitti Shivalaya’ as of Surya and Lower Shivalaya as of Ganapathi. The Jambhulinga Shrine housing Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva is another important monument of the place. Queen Vinayavathi built it in 699 A.D. Badami rock-cut shrines are engraved in hard red sand-stone and the figures here are of unrivalled beauty. Banashankari Karnataka, The Tourist Paradise 373 near by, has the Banasankari temple, a big pond encircled by open pillared mantapas and an old temple of Rashtrakuta times. Annual Jatra gather on Banada Hunnime in the month of January.

Bagali, situated at a distance of nine km. from Harapanahalli, on the Hadagali Road in Davanagere dt. was known as ‘Baguli’. Here is a complex of temples called Kalleswara which is mentioned in an inscription of 1013. There are twin temples of Later Chaklukyan times with attractive intricate plastic art of erotic sculptures on their outer walls and 59 shining polished pillars inside the temple and its Kapotas’ have most peculiar erotic figures. The A.S.I. has maintained a sculpture shed near this magnificent Chalukya monument.

Banavasi in Uttara Kannada District was the traditional capital of the Kadambas is found mentioned as Vanavasi, Vyjayanthi, Banousi in several inscriptions. It is a very ancient place, as Ashoka is said to have sent his Buddhist missionaries to ‘Vanavasa’ and a family called Chutus the feudatory line of the Satavahanas was ruling from here. The place is on the bank of the Varada river and its laterite fort is surrounded by the river on its three sides. Recent excavations at Banavasi have brought to light some Buddhist brick monuments. Chutu prince Nagashri built a Buddhist Vihara, a tank and installed a Naga image at the place according to a Prakrit record of the place. The striking monument at Banavasi, the Madhukeshvara temple has been renovated and expanded by Kalyana Chalukyas, Vijayanagara and the Sode rulers. The Kadamba Nagara (stepped pyramidical) shikhara is seen on the garbhagriha of this temple. Around this main temple are shrines of Vithoba, Ardha Ganapathi, Rama etc., and to its left is Parvati Shrine and to the right, Narasimha temple of Vijayanagara times. The temple has an intricately carved monolithic cot with highly artistic designs. Records here indicate that Buddhism and Jainism were popular at this place. Not far away from Banavasi is Gudnapur with a massive tank and a Jain temple now housing Veerabhadra. There must have been a Manmatha temple at the place as indicated by the recently discovered Gudnapur inscription of Kadamba Ravi Varma.

Bangalore is the capital of Karnataka from 1956 and it took the status of a capital in modern times from 1831 when the British Commissioners took over the administration of Mysore State from the Mysore Prince. The place name is found mentioned in a 9th century record of Begur as ‘Benguluru’ ‘Bengu’ meaning a Shrub colloquially called Rakta Honne (Benga trees) . Kempegowda II gave the same name to the new town. He founded i.e., at the present Mega City. Earlier, it was the headquarters of the Yelahanka Nadaprabhus who ruled under Vijayanagara Empire and built the new town with the fort. Kempegowda II is believed to have raised the fort in 1537 as per the orders of Emperor Achutharaya of Vijayanagara. The old Gavipura natural cave shrine of Gangadhara built during the Ganga period came to be expanded during the Vijayanagara period and the monolithic Basava in Basavanagudi was got 374 A Handbook of Karnataka engraved by this family. The family also built the most beautiful Someshwara Temple at Ulsoor. The dynasty also created many tanks which include the Ulsoor tank, Dharmambudhi tank (present Bus Stand), Chennamba tank (now called Chennamma tank) near BSK II stage and Kempambudhi tank. In 1637 Bijapur Army conquered Bangalore and granted it as Jagir to Shahji, Shivaji’s father. Shahji and his son Ekoji had Bangalore under their control till 1687 when it was conquered by the Mughul army and the city was given on lease to Chikkadevaraya of Mysore. He built the Venkataramana temple and a new fort beside the existing old fort. Bangalore which had grown as an industrial and commercial centre under the Kempegowda family and the Marathas, was further developed by Chikkadevaraya as he invited weavers from Baramahal
(Tamilnadu) area to come and settle down in Bangalore. Later Bangalore was granted as Jahgir to Haider and when he usurped power from the Wodeyars, he strengthened the new fort by using granite blocks. He built a palace near the Venkataramana temple and started Lalbagh, the famous Botanical Garden of Bangalore. Later a beautiful Glass House was built in 1889 due to the efforts of the overnment modeled on the Crystal Palace of England. This imposing structure has been renovated with attractive imported coloured glasses. Bangalore was captured by the British in 1791 under the leadership of Lord Cornwallis and it was returned to Tipu after he signed a treaty with them. He dismantled the existing fort as it was found to be more useful to his enemies than to himself. Under Haider, Bangalore grew as a prosperous commercial city also catering to the needs of luxury of the Srirangapattana court. But under Tipu, its trade declined. The British who defeated Tipu in 1799 handed it over to the Mysore Hindu Prince. Diwan Purnaiah rebuilt the demolished fort. The British stationed their troops in 1809 at Ulsoor and a twin town, Bangalore Cantonment emerged helping introduction of European way of life and modern ideas to the old Bangalore town which became the capital in 1831. The Atharakacheri, High Court, Central College, and Museum buildings were raised in the European Renaissance style and English education was introduced into Bangalore.Many churches in European Renaissance style were built in Bangalore during this period. Modern Textile mills like Binny Mill were started in the city. The city came to have a municipality in 1862 and the Cantonment area also had a separate Municipality called Civil and Military Station. The two came to be merged in 1949 to form
the Bangalore City Corporation. After Independence, many Central Government Industries were started in the city. There are ancient temples at Begur, Madiwala (Tavarekere), Kadugodi, Hesaraghatta and Dommalur. Other temples like Gavi Gangadhara in a natural cave, Basavanagudi with monotithic Nandi, Rangaswamy temple built around 1600 in the Rangaswamy Temple street, the Someshwara temple at Ulsoor and Kadumalleswara temple in Malleshwaram which had received a grant from Ekoji, are some of the interesting monuments. In addition, a large number of new temples have come up.


Temple of the Tigala community celebrates the famous Karaga festival on the full moon day of Chaitra. Satya sai Baba Ashram otherwise called ‘Brindavan’ started its activities about more than 2 decades at Kadugodi. Besides havbing a huge Prarthana Mandir, the Ashram runs several educational institutions. Its Bangalore Branch of the High Tech Mega Hospital has been widely appreciated for its dedicated services and utmost cleanliness. Omkar Hills, situated on the outskirts of Bangalore near Kenchenahally is an important religious centre with serene natural settings, where a huge Banyan tree crowns a circular hillock. Alround the sumit of this hillock a series of mantapa symbolizing the religious insignia of all the major religions Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam have been built with brick and cement in respective traditional styles of architecture. The Omkar Ashram has also takenup the stupendous task of building the 12 Jyotirlinga temples being a miniature representation of respective architectural styles of India. Every year devotees throng this spot especially during the swamiji’s birthday. A huge Electronic clock designed by HMT having a temple gong and Shanka for the hourly time beatings are embedded, which gives a pious and pleasant sound to a distance of nearly 1.5km radius. Being just 13 km. from the city this is an important religious place for peace aspiring tourists and devotees. The Art of Living Centre Ashram has recently been built by Saint Ravishankar on the Kanakapura Road near the city. Special Bhajans and Art of Living courses are
organized on weekly basis. Of late it is attracting tourists from India and also abroad. A huge Rajarajeshwari temple built in Dravidian style at Kenchenahalli on the Mysore Road and the Meenakshi Temple on the Bannerghatta road have been raised more than a decade ago are attracting a large number of devotees Amrita Anandamayi Ashram has also started its branch in the city
and has been attracting thousands of devotees regularly.

ISKCON now situated atop a small hillock arranged in a row of rising shikaras overlooking the hillock is an attractive spectacle. It spreads in an area of seven acres on the West of chord Road in Rajajinagar is an hitech temple complex and is regarded as an important tourist destination of this garden city. The temple complex has been architecturally designed in such a way that it is visible as a glowing hillock during night and can be described as a visual bounty. How this huge temple complex came to be created makes an interesting episode. About 25 years ago ISKCON was founded (1978) in a rented building (Rs.2000 PM) and made a humble beginning. Later on with the efforts of the organisers it gained prominence and today it is one among the most celebrated 108 ISKCON branches functioning all over the world. Its natural elevation of the land area has been fully exploited and an attractive but, complicated architectural designing has been accomplished with utmost cleanliness and perfection. There are five typical Dravidian shikharas built at three stages with a tall attractive rayagopura at the main entrance. The central garbhagriha has been designed on the Egyptian Pyramidical Model with three

cells in a row comprising the images of Sri Nitay Gowrang in the first cell to the left Sri Radhakrishna Chandra in the central cell and Krishna-Balarama in the cell to the right. There are short but, attractive Dravidian styled shikharas above all the three cells. There is a spacious/pentagonal central hall in front of the three garbhagrihas with a hallow domical ceiling decorated with delicate stained glasses intercepted by brass partitions. The pentagonal roof drops have excellent Mysore traditional glass paintings depicting Krishna’s life history. The artistic designing of this pentagonal hall has been a beautiful creation with aesthetic outlook has been largely appreciated. Besides these there are small shrines dedicated to Sri Venkatesha and Sri Narasimha with separate short Dravidian styled shikhars. Facing the main temple is a 56 ft. tall dwajasthambha covered with gold plated decorated brass sheets. Special pujas are offered thrice daily one at sunrise, at noon and in the evening. Annually special pujas are performed during Gokula Ashthami (Lord Krishna’s birthday), Nandotsava and Vaikuntha Ekadashi. Daily delicious prasadam prepared with utmost hygienic method are offered to the devotees visiting the temple. Another impressve programme of this organisation is the ‘Akshaya Patra’ yojana initiated mainly to cater the needs of less privileged children studying in government schools in the rural areas. Recently, the same scheme is being extended in and around the city of Hubli. Being very much inside the Mega city The ISKCON temple offers a beautiful, serene and
calm atmosphere for the visiting devotees. ISKCON also conducts elocution competitions on the Krishna’s lifetime episodes and also on other Vaishnava philosophy. It conducts also several cultural activities all through the year.

Bhakti Vedantha, a monthly magazine dedicated to spread the gospel of Vaishnava philosophy and also the spiritual ideologies of ISKCON is being published regularly. Vishwa Shanti dhama, Lord Shiva (near Air Port) etc., are the new additions to the long list of temples in Bangalore. The Muslims have the Taramandal Sangeen Jamia Masjid built by a Mughal Officer in around 1687. The Ibrahim Shah Shahib’s Mosque at Kumbarpet was raised in 1761, the Jamia Mosque at the City market is the creation of the 1940s and it is a vast modern building, equally impressive, built by using white marble. There is a dargha of Mastansab Wali at Cottonpet which is highly respected by Hindus as well as Muslims. The oldest Church in Bangalore is St. Mary’s Basilica in Shivajinagar supposed to have been originally built in around 16th Century, but took the existing shape in 1832. There is the Trinity Church of the Anglicans on the M.G. Road and St. Marks Cathedral on the same road. St. Patrick church was originally for Irish Catholic soldiers and St. Andrew’s, on the Cubbon Road for the Scottish soldiers. The Catholic Cathedral is St. Xaver’s, a large granite building. The London Mission raised the Hudson Memorial Church. There are many Jain Basadis of which the one in Gandhinagar and Jayanagar notable though modern. The Sikhs have their Gurudwara at Ulsoor, and Parsis have

Their fire temple. Bangalore has beautiful gardens like Lalbagh and the Cubbon Park, which are the pride of the city. One of the fine large modern buildings raised by using granite is Vidhana Soudha built in traditional Dravidian style. Of late the government has constructed Vikasa Soudha beside Vidhana Soudha immitating the same traditional Dravidian style of Vidhana Soudha is nearing completion. Tipu’s palace is a wooden structure and Bangalore Palace is modelled on the Windsor Palace of Britain. Bangalore has the Govt. Museum, Sir M. Visveswaraya Industrial Museum and the Jawaharlal Nehru Planetorium. Bangalore is well connected by roads, railways and airways and has pleasant weather, attracting tourists from far and near. Bangalore being a celebrated education and advanced technical as well as higher research facilities boasts of the --------- has Bangalore University, Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts (South Zone) (IGNCA) started recently, Agricultural University, the Indian Institute of Science, Institute for Astrophysics, Indian Statistical Institute, Institute for Social and Economic change (ISEC), National Law School, Regional Institute of English, National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL), Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) and many others. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Institute of Management and all modern amenities
for education. It has industries producing tractors, railway coaches, aeroplanes, etc. and finer things like silk sarees and sandal wood images. It is called the electronic and Silicon City of India, for its unparallel progress in the field of computer science and Information Technology. International Technological Park: The 28 hectares International Tech Park, Bangalore is located in Whitefield – 12 kms from Bangalore Airport and 18 kms from the city centre. It currently comprises of four buildings – ‘Discoverer’, ‘Innovator’, ‘Creator’ and ‘Explorer’ totaling close to 1.6 million sq.ft. of office,
production, commercial and retail space. All these buildings are centrally airconditioned, set in attractively landscaped surroundings, the buildings have a very a modern facade with granite cladding for the lower three floors and glittering glass and aluminium paneling for the floors above. The four buildings are connected at the lower ground floor level which houses the Tech Park Mall. The Mall comprises of various amenties, services and recreational centre complementing the ‘work, live play’ environment. Office space modules are customed to the tenants requirements and a number of configurations are
possible. Office units are available for lease or purchase. Apart from the world class services and amenities, the buildings are provided with reliable power by a Dedicated power plant, water supply, communications network with five leading service providers located in the park and other necessities. The ITPL is built on the plug-and-play concept, providings tenants with all necessary amenities, ample car parking, a state-of-theart Building Management System and more, making business a pleasure. Adding to these benefits is the fact that the International Tech Park ahs become a landmark in the IT scenario, and a perfect address for any business in IT or IT – enabled services. It has a Residential Tower of 51 apartments, infrastructure and other facilities. The Residential Tower is ideal for those who wish to live close to their offices. There’s a separate parking lot with space allotted for each apartment as well as a children’s playground. The residents enjoy complete benefits of the Tech
Park Mall which provides business convenience to the tenants like banking, shopping, restaurants and travel reservations and Health Club. The Residential Tower is a safe place to live in with round-the-clock security and other safety features. The IT Corridor of Bangalore runs between Electronic City till Old Madras Road which possesses hundreds of Software as well as Hardware companies, a real tourist spot frequented regularly by people across the Globe.

Bankapura in Haveri district about 80 km. away from Dharwad is in Savanur taluk The town was built by Bankeya, a commander of Amoghavarsha Nripatunga (9th century) and later under the Chalukya many beautiful temples were raised in the city including the wonderful Nagareshwara temple in the fort. There is another Chalukya temple in the town called Siddeshwara. When the place was conquered by Ali Adilshah in about 1567, his records claim to have destroyed many temples and the Nagareshwara inspite of the damage it has suffered is a magnificent monument. There is a beautiful mosque in the fort. Pancharabhavi, a swimming pool like structure in the town has an attractive queer design. Bankapur has the Kilari Cow Breeding Centre and a rabbit breeding centre with its office inside the fort. The Bijapur commanders, who had this place as their headquarters, later shifted to Savanur, and were famous as Savanur Nawabs.

Basava Kalyana, the taluk headquarters in Bidar Dt, is 80 km. away from Bidar. It was the capital of the Later Chalukyas, It has an old fort renovated by the Bahamanis and inside it is an rchaeological Museum. Not much ancient remains of the Chalukyan or the Kalachuri times remain here except the dilapidated Narayanapur temple of the Chalukyas in the outskirts of the town. There is a modern Basaveshwara temple, Prabhudevara Gadduge,celebrated Jurist of the Kalyana Chalukyan period. Vijnaneshwara’s Cave, Madivala Machiah’s Pond, Akka Nagamma’s Cave, fully renovated Siddheshwara temple and a new structure called Anubhava Mantapa. The Qaji’s mosque is an impresive structure. There is also Raja Bagh Sawar Dargah. Basava Vana has been formed to commemorate the eighth birth centenary of Saint Basaveshwara.

Basavana Bagewadi in Bijapur dt. is 43 km. to the east of Bijapur and is a Tq. headquarters where Sharana Basaveshwara was born (12th Century). It was an agrahara. Basaveshwara was the son of the head of this institution. The main temple here the Basaveshwara, is of Chalukyan style, but called as Sangamanatha in records. The Samadhis of Siddharameshwara and Gurupadeshwara of the Inchageri school of spiritual pursuit are seen here. A spot here identified as Basava’s ancestral house is declared as protected zone by the Trust.

Basaral in Mandya district, 25 km. away from Mandya is to be visited for the highly embellished Mallikarjuna temple of Hoysala style. It was built by Harihara Dandanayaka in 1234. Its walls are decorated with Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavatha stories besides several other sculptures of different sect.

Belavadi in Chikmagalur dt. is known for its fine Veeranarayana temple of the Hoysalas. It is a triple (‘trikuta’) shrine with its cells housing beautiful images of Veeranarayana, Venugopala and Yoganarasimha of wonderful workmanship. It has a record of 1206 and the temple must be previous to it and the place is 29 km. from Chikmagalur. The local people claim that it was
the Ekachakranagara of Mahabharata days. There is also a Ganapathi temple called as Huttada Ganapathi.

Belgaum, ancient ‘Venugrama’ (Bamboo village) is the District Head Quarters and was also Divisional Headquarters till recently, 502 kms away from Bangalore, on the Bangalore-Pune National Highway. It was the capital of the Rattas who shifted to this place from Saundatti during the close of 12th century A.D. The place has a fort inside which built by one Ratta Officer called Bichiraja in 1204 A.D. exhibits the execution of a totally refined style of temple architecture. It has excellently and artistically carved Kamala Basadi having huge protruding lotus petals of stone (Kamala) in its ceiling and this beautiful structure in Chalukyan style houses Neminatha Teerthankara image. The place came under the Sevunas (Yadavas) and Vijayanagara and later conquered by Mahamood Gawan in 1474 on behalf of the Bahamanis. The fort was strengthened by the Adilshahis and there is an excellent structure, Safa Mosque with three entrances, has rich floral and impressive calligraphic designs. Two
of its pillars have Kannada Inscriptions in Nagari Scripts, one of 1199 of Ratta King Kartaveerya IV and another of 1261 is of Sevuna (Yadava) Krishna. The Persian Inscription here states that the mosque was built by Asad Khan, Bijapur Commander. The Jamia Masjid in the fort was built by Sher Khan in 1585-86,. There is a dargah of Khanjar Wali near it. Belgaum later came under the Mughuls (who called it Azamnagar) and the Marathas till its conquest by the British in 1818. Then the British founded their Cantonment here and made it the headquarters of Maratha Light Infantry. The St. Mary’s Church here was built in 1869. The Maruthi temple here is quite vast and has some antiquities of Chalukyan times. The fort has Chalukyan Pillars spread all over. The Kapileshwar temple in Shahpur area was of Chalukyan times, now totally renovated. Shapur a suburb of Belgaum was in Sangli State. Vadgaon - Madhavapur another suburb of the Belgaum city was in a separate state called
Junior Kurundawad. Near Vadgaon, a Satavahana settlement has been indentified with the head of stucco Buddha figure has been excavated. Belgaum has a City Corporation. It is a place with pleasant weather. It played a leading part in the freedom movement. The Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College here has a highly educative pathological museum.

Belgami, ancient ‘Balligave’ or ‘Baligrama’, the capital of the prosperous province of antiquity called Banavasi - 12,000, is 12 km. away from the taluk hq. viz., Shikaripur and three km from Shiralkoppa. It was the place where Allamaprabhu was born and Akkamahadevi was married to Chalukya Governor of the palce called Kaushika or Keshimayya. The palace has the Kodimatha
which was the Kedareshwara Matha of the Kalamukhas who were known for their learning. They ran a centre of learning Ghatikasthana or a University here. The Matha is a beautiful Chalukyan triple shrine on the bank of a tank. The Tripurantaka temple adorned by the narrative panels of Panchatantra stories, is another Chalukyan temple. Allamaprabhu is believed to have been attached to this temple. It was a cosmopolitan town with Mathas of five various denominations. A Buddhist Tarabhagavathi image has been found here. There was also a Buddhist Vihara here. There is a small agareshwara temple, the Panchalingeshwara temple and Veerabhadra temple which are all Chalukyan. The Kalika temple is of Vijayanagara times. Hoysala Vishnuvardhan’s famous queen Shantala, and the builders of the Belur Temple, Dasoja and Chavana belonged to this place. A Chalukya general installed a Bherunda Stambha to commemorate his victory. The place has a museum run by A.S.I. Belgami had been a great centre of learning and cultural activity.

Bellary is a district headquarters, situated at a distance of 306 kms to the north-west of Bangalore. It has spread round two rocky hills, and one of them called Balahari Betta has a temple. The fort built round the hill in Vijayanagara times is still intact. It passed into the hands of Bijapur, Marathas, the Nizam and Haider. After the fall of Tipu, the town was ceded to the British by the Nizam. The Durgamma (Ballaramma) temple here has the deity represented by the heap of earth. The place has two large mosques. A Government Medical College was founded here in 1961 Bellary now has grown as a great centre of apparel manufacturing.

Belur in Hassan district (222 kms. from Bangalore) also a Taluk Head Quarters is famous for its magnificent Hoysala temple complex. The Chennakeshava temple here was completed in 1116 A.D. by Hoysala Vishnuvardhana to commemorate his victory over the Cholas Calling the god as Vijaya Narayana. The magnificent image is 3.7 mtr. tall and the temple standing on a platform has exquisite plastic art work on its outer walls and bracket figures of dancing girls in various poses, in perfect proportion. There are shrines of Kappe Chenniga, Andal, Saumya Nayaki, etc., in the precincts of this temple enclosed by a Prakara with ‘gopura’ (entrance tower) built by Belur Nayaka, a Vijayanagar feudatory. The temple here is a classic example of Hoysala art and Belur was one of the Hoysala capitals.

Bhadravati, an industrial town in Shimoga dt., 256 km. away from Bangalore, was formerly called ‘Benkipura’. There is a 13th Century Lakshminarasimha Temple in Hoysala style here. The Visveswaraya Iron and Steel Works, a Cement Factory (1938) and Paper Factory (1935) function at this place on the banks of the Bhadra river.

Bhagamandala, Kodagu dt. 288 km. from Bangalore and 35 km. from Madikeri is on the banks of the Cauvery. It has a Shiva temple called Bhagandeshwara. It has gabled roofs covered with copper plates and has magnificent wooden carving representing Shaivapuranas gaily painted. The attractive wooden figures, big and small engage the attention of the onlooker. Ganapathi, Vishnu and Subrahmanya are other shrines here. This serene place with natural beauty will have big jatra on Tula Sankramana.

Bidar, the District headquarters, described as Viduranagara, a place of Mahabharatha times, is 740 kms. to the north of Bangalore. It is a cool place, being at an altitude of 664 metres. The Bahmanshahi rulers made it their capital, in c, 1426 and fortified it. It is still intact. Inside it are the Solha Kamb mosque (1423) and palaces like Takht Mahal, Chini Mahal and Rangeen Mahal;
some of them are highly decorated with mosaic and wood work etc. The fort has magnificent doorways and massive bastions. Gawan’s Madrasa in the town is a gorgeous imposing building of Indo-Saracenic style. After the decline of Bahamanis, the Barid-Shahis ruled over Bidar and it was taken over by the Bijapur rulers in 1619. Later it fell to Aurangzeb, and finally it came under the
Nizam. Jharani Narasimha temple here is quite famous. Ashtur near Bidar has tombs of Bahmani Sultans which are tall structures, and one of them has paintings. The Gurudwara at Bidar is built at Nanak Zhira, which is described as a fountain created by Guru Nanak during his visit.

Bijapur, the district headquarters, 579 km. away from Bangalore is one of the most important centres of Indo-Saracenic art, being the capital of the Adilshahis of Bijapur (1489-1686). The place is found mentioned as ‘Vijayapura’ in as inscription of 12th Century A.D. The Gol Gumbaz here has the biggest dome in India, 126 feet in diametre at its base and is the Mausoleum of Mohammed Adilshah (1626-56). It has an astonishing whispering gallery and it covers an area of 15,000 square feet. Ibrahim Rauza is a marvellous mausoleum of Ibrahim II (1580-1626) which stands on a platform supported by rows of arches, and at one end is the mosque and at the other the tomb. Henry Cousens called this, ‘the Tajmahal of the South”. Anand Mahal, Gagan Mahal, Asar Mahal etc. are the other important monuments of this place. There are fine tanks like Tajbavadi and Chandbavadi.Asar Mahal has attractive paintings now fading away due to weathering. The fort round the town has 96
bastions and six imposing doorways.Mulk-Maidan here is a huge gun weighing 55 tons. Near Gol Gumbaz is a Museum. The place has a Municipal Corporation. It has many grand artistic mosques like Kali Masjid, Mecca Masjid, Malika Jahan’s Mosque and the Jami Masjid, the biggest one with a proportionate large dome. The Mahtar Mahal, the entrance of mosque has delicate stone
brackets of intricate workmanship. To the west of the citadel is a Dattatreya temple, where a pair to sandals of Narashimha Saraswati are worshipped and the shrine was raised by Ibrahim II. There is a Parshwanatha basadi (1927) in the city and many modern temples of which twenty Shivalinga temple (1954) is notable. Bijapur had a population of over one million in its hay days and was a great commercial centre, called as “the Queen of Deccan”. After its take over by Aurangzeb, the city lost its importance. It regained its importance after the British who made it their district headquarters during 1870s.

Chamarajanagar, the district head quarters, newly carved out of Mysore dt. is 56 kms. away from Mysore, formerly called Arikutara situated in Punnata Nadu during the Ganga period. It was the birth place of Chamaraja OdeyarVTII, in whose memory the Chamarajeshwara temple was raised (1825), It also has Parshwanatha basadi, Lakshmikantha and Virabhadra temples of early Times. Narasamangala, an ancient place close by, having an intact temple of the Ganga period is another important place with rich antiquities to be essentially visited by the tourists.

Chikmagalur, the district headquarters of the coffee growing Malnad area, is 251 kms. from Bangalore and was known as ‘Kiriya Mugali’ in inscriptions and ‘Piriya Mugali’ is Hiremagalur, an extension of this town where there is a Kodandarama temple of Hoysala times. (Mugali is the name of a plant). The Sangeen Mosque here is an old structure. Jarni Mosque built during the 19th century is the largest one in the district. St. Joseph’s Cathedral and St. Andrews Church (1880) are the other impressive monuments. The Kattiramma temple here has a priest of the SC community. The Kannika Parameshwari and the Rukmini Panduranga are modern temples. The town is placed in the backdrop of the Chandradrona Parvata or Bababudan Hill of the Western Ghats and Inam Dattatreya Peetha is 35 km. from here.

Chitradurga, the famous hill fort town, the district headquarters, 202 km. away from Bangalore is on the Pune-Bangalore road. It had a feudatory dynasty of Vijayanagara, called the Nayakas known for their heroic exploits. They built this hill fort with seven rounds of ramparts, a picturesque sight. In the high forts there are temples of the Sampige Siddheswara, Hidimbeshwara (a cave
shrine), Ekanatheshwari, Phalguneshwara, Gopalkrishna, etc., amidst thick rocky surroundings. Those who know the heroic history of Chitradurga rulers will go into raptures while seeing the magnificent bastions, doors and ramparts of this vast hill-fort. The Galimantapa, opposite to the Hidimbeshwara is a unique tall stone structure. Near Rangayyana Bagilu is the Archaeological Museum. In the town are temples of Chennakeshava, Venkataramana, Anjaneya etc. and the Murugharajendra Brihanmatha is a venerable centre of the Veerashaiva sect.

Dambal or Dhammavolal now in Gadag dt. is 21 kms. from Gadag. It is also known as ‘Dharmapolalu’ in ancient inscriptions. It was a Buddhist Centre too. The Doddabasappa and the Someshwara are the two notable Chalukyan temples here and the Doddabasappa has multigonal star-shaped garbhagriha.With fine sculptural representations and a huge Nandi image. The Someshwara could have been an old basadi. In the old ruined fort, there is a huge Ganapati image in a small shrine. The town has a 400 year old vast tank. There is the Thontada Siddhalingeswara Matha at the place.

Davanagere, now a district Headquarters, 267 km. from Bangalore, on the Pune-Bangalore Road is also a modern industrial town that grew round a tank where itinerant traders took rest. The tank had the name Davanikere, ‘Cattlerope Tank’, dauoni being the rope tying the cattle. It was earlier a suburb of ancient centre Betur, a township under the Sevunas, and it was granted as a Jahgir by Haider Ali to Appaji Ram one of his officers who was responsible for its growth as a commercial centre. Davanagere grew as a centre of textile industry. It has also grown as an educational centre with a medical and engineering college. The Iswara of Anekonda Village is an important temple here.

Devala Ganagapura in Afzalpur taluk Gulbarga dt. is 651 km. away from Bangalore. It is to be reached from Ganagapur railway station. Sri Narasimha Saraswati who had stayed here for long and was granted a jahgir by the Bahmani Sultan. The Saint had cured the Sultan of a serious (incurable) boil. The saint is treated as an incarnation of Dattatreya and devotees from Maharashtra and
Karnataka throng the place daily.

Dharmasthala is a very prominent Shaiva Centre where Manjunatha (Shiva) is worshipped by Madhwa Vaishnava priests of Shivalli tradition and the temple administrator or Dharmadarshi is Jaina and the temple treats Bhutas (the remnants of animistic cult, in which departed persons are deified and treated as the ‘ganas’ of Shiva. It is 75 km. from Mangalore and is amidst hilly green attractive settings. The temple has the main Manjunatha Linga and Devi. The place has Chandranatha Basti and a Gommata monolith 11.9metres in height, installed in 1980’s. The ‘Manjusha’ Museum here is unique. Buses are available from all major centres of Karnataka and choultries for stay are plenty. There is a well executed food serving system for all the tourists irrespective of their caste or creed. The temple management runs many institutions of learning.

Dharwad, a district headquarters on the Pune-Bangalore Road, 437 km. from Bangalore is the cultural headquarters of North Karnataka. It was the home of Alur Venkatrao, the father of Karnataka Unification Movement, poet Bendre and outstanding Hindustani Vocalists Mallikarjuna Mansur. Now a part of Hubli - Dharwad Corporation, Dharwad became the district headquarters when it came under the British from the Marathas in 1818, and grew to be a centre of learning due to the English School opened in 1848, high school opened by the Basel Mission in 1868 and the Training College was initiated in 1867 which became the centre of Kannada Movement. The Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sangha (1890) sowed the seeds of Kannada Renaissance.
Mentioned as “Dharawada” in a record of the 12th century of the Kalyana Chalukyas, the place came under the Sevunas, Vijayanagara, Bijapur, Mughuls, Marathas, and Haider and Tipu. The Vijayanagara rulers built a fort here which was strengthened by Bijapur rulers. Its door-frame alone remains now. The Durgadevi temple near the fort is renovated now and the Someshwara on
Kalghatgi Road has a Chalukyan temple and a tank. The Mailara Linga temple at Vidyagiri is a Kalyana Chalukyan monument converted into a mosque by Bijapur army but again changed as a temple by the Peshwas. The place has many temples like Venkataramana, Nandikola Basavanna, Dattatreya, Ulavi Basavanna etc. The Murugha Matha is a centre of religious activity. The Sanskrit
College is a four-storeyed building of the late 19th Century. The Karnataka University (1949), the Agricultural University (1986) and the All India Radio Station gave new life to the educational and cultural life of the the city. Dharwad played a prominent part in the freedom movement. Dharwad firing in 1921 which killed three Khilafat Workers caused a stir in the country. Dharwad has
churches of the Basel Mission and the Catholics.

Doddagaddavalli is a village 14 km. from Hassan known for its Lakshmidevi temple with five garbhagrihas, built in 1114 A.D. by a merchant called Kallahana Rahuta. It is one among the; earliest Hoysala works. It is called Dakshina Kolhapura and Lakshmi worshipped here represents Shakta Lakshmi. Bhairava and other deities are also worshipped here.

Gadag-Betgeri is a twin city Municipality on the Dharwad-Guntakal Railway line, 80 km. from Dharwad and Gadag has become the district head quarters since 1997. It is a great centre of Kalyana Chalukyan art with the large Trikuteshwara temple, originally Rashtrakuta, later expanded by the Kalyana Chalukyas into a vast complex, and it has Trikuteshwara temple complex triple
shrines once housing Shiva, Brahma and Surya. The Saraswati temple in its precinct has the finest shining decorative pillars, and the Saraswati image, though now damaged, is the finest examples of Chalukyan Art. Recently a newly carved Saraswati image in the same Chalukyan style has been installed as the earlier one had broken up. The place has the Someshwara and Rameshwara temples of Chalukyan style, is also known for its religious harmony. The Veeranarayana temple of Chalukyan times, completely renovated in Vijayanagara times including the image of Narayana too replaced. The great Kannada poet Kumaravyasa composed his famous Karnataka Bharatha Kathamanjari by staying in this temple. Gadag has a mosque of Adilshahi times, highly artistic. There is a Church too of the Basel Mission (Now C.S.I.). Betageri has many artistic herostones, some dating back to 9th-10th centuries. (‘Kaldugu’ is the old name of Gadag and ‘Battakere’, ‘Round Tank’ of Betgeri). Gadag-
Betageri are famous for weaving industry, and of late, Gadag has excelled In printing. To reach Lakkundi, Dambal, Itgi and Kukanur, Gadag is the gateway.

Gokarna situated in coastal Karnataka is 453 kms. from Bangalore and about 55 kms. from the district head quarters Karwar, is described as a Shaiva Centre, on par with Kashi and Rameshwar and the Mahabaleshwara Temple here has indications of atleast being originally built during 11-12th Century and the Portuguese destroyed it during the 18th century and it was renovated then. There is a famous Ganapathi Temple and the deity here is two-armed, standing, and is atleast 1500 years’ old. Tamragauri is another shrine here. The Bhadrakali and Venkataramana temples, Jatayuteertha, Kotiteertha etc., are other holy places here. Gokarna has a long beach on the west and the Western Ghat ranges closeby in the east and is in a wonderful natural settings. Atmalinga brought by Ravana got struck here and his efforts to extricate it resulted in his throwing the coverings of the Linga to Dhareshwar, Gunavanteshwara, Murdeshwar and Shejjeshwar Temples (the last place is
near Karwar), according to tradition. All these places are in Uttara Kannada district.

Gulbarga, the district and divisional head-quarters, formerly in the Nizam’s State, is 623 km. from Bangalore, was the first capital of the Bahmanis from 1347. Kannada records call the place as ‘Kallumbarige’, and it was named later by Muslims as Gulbarga, giving it a floral touch. The fort here was originally built by one Raja Gulchand, a feudatory of the Warangal Kakatiyas, and was
rebuilt by All-ud-din Bahmani with 15 majestic towers. Inside the fort is the huge wonderful mosque built by Muhammed Bahmani in 1367 and it covers 38,000 sq. feet area. The place has a huge sprawling complex housing the tomb of Bande Nawaz, the great Sufi saint, who came to Gulbarga in 1413. His tomb’s walls have paintings and a mosque built by the Mughuls is near the
tomb. The Khandar Khan’s mosque and Hirapur mosque (1585) built by Chandbibi are some other monuments here, and the tomb of Sultan Hassan and Firoz Shah are imposing structures. In all there are seven mausoleums of Bahamani sultans. Sharana Basappa Appa’s tomb here is highly venerated. The place has many modern temples and Gulbarga University is housed here.
outside the city in an attractive campus. The State Archaelogy Museum here has Buddhist plaques brought from Sannati. The City has a Municipal Corporation.

Halasi in Khanapur taluk, 14 km. from Khanapur Railway Station, and was the second capital of the Kadambas of Banavasi, It has the oldest basadi of Karnataka, built by the Early Kadambas who patronised Jainism. But the basadi is in dilapidated condition now. The huge Bhuvaraha Narasimha temple here was rebuilt by the Goa Kadambas during the 12th Century A.D., and has
fine tall images of Varaha, Narasimha, Narayana and Surya. Halasi was the headquarters of a major province called Halasige - 12,000 under the Kalyana Chalukyas. The place has a fort, and also temples of Gokarneshwara, Kapileshwara, Swarneshwara and Hatakeshwara. The place is in the background of Western Ghats in lush green atmosphere.

Halebid (former Dwarasamudra) in Belur taluk, Hassan dt., 27 kms. away from Hassan was the capital of Hoysalas after Belur. It has one of the finest Hoysala temples said to have been started by Ketamalla, a commander of 386 A Handbook of Karnataka Vishnuvardhana in a 1121 A.D. The twin Shiva Temples with a common platform and two garbhagrihas, one besides the other have a common broad navaranga. One of them houses Vishnuvardhana Hoysaleshwara Linga and the other Shanthaleshwara Linga. In front of the Hoysaleshwara is the Nandimantapa
and behind that is a shrine of Surya with a two-metre-tall image. The temple doorways are highly ornate and impressive. Outer walls have rows of Intricate figures narrating episodes from epics like Ramayana, Bharatha and Bhagavata. The place has a Parshwanatha basadi with highly polished pillars in which onlookers queer images are reflected. There is a Museum of the A.S.I. The
Kedareshwara temple is another monument built by Ketaladevi, Ballala II’s Queen. Chatchatnahalli (nearby) has an attractive Hoysala Trikuta temple with rich architectural refinement built by Chatta Dandanayaka in 1220.

Hampi the site of the capital of Vijayanagara (1336), 10 km. from Hospet in Bellary dt. was an ancient city and Buddhist remains of the early Christian era are found here. Known as Pampakshetra, because of Pampadevi temple, is on the banks of Tungabhadra. On the Hemakuta Hill behind the famous Virupaksha temple of Chalukyan times, there is a Badami Chalukya temple.
Poet Harihara in Kannada has praised God Virupaksha during the 12th Century. This, rocky hilly area with Anegundi to the north of the river is identified as Kishkindha of Ramayana times. Virupaksha temple was provided with a long Kalyana Mantapa which is a pillared pavilion with complex artistic monolithic pillars by Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529) in commemoration of his victory against
Bijapur and the Gajapatis. Its entrance tower called Bhistappayyana Gopura became the model for all Vijayanagara Gopuras built all over South India, called as Rayagopuras. Also called as an Open-Air Museum, Hampi has the Krishnaswamy temple, Hazara Ramaswamy Temple, Achutaraya Temple housing Ranganatha, Kodandaramaswamy temple, Vithalaswamy temple,
Irugappa’s Basti (called Ganigitti Jinalaya (1385), Uddhana Virabhadra temple, monolithic Lakshmi Narasimha (29 Feet tall installed by Krishnadevaraya in 1529), huge Badavi Linga, Kamala Mahal, Elephants’ stable, Mahanavami Dibba, monolithic Ganeshas called as Kadalekalu and Sasivekalu Ganesha and a large number of other temples and monuments. Recent excavations
have brought to light many palace foundations, a fine stepped tank with polished stone Royal enclosure, several Noblemen quarters and some Jaina bastis and some Buddhists plaques. The ‘Moorish quarter’ has a mosque. The foreign visitors to the capital during the 15th and 16th centuries have called it bigger than Rome. They are stunned by the grandeur of its Dasara Festival and the trade of the town. People from the East and the West were seen there. The City was destroyed and deserted in 1565, but its remains continued to be intact, though in ruined condition, spread over more than 25 square km. area. Kamalapura has an ASI Site Museum. The Kannada University is also functioning from a new campus nearby, named as “Vidyaranya”. Hampi is
included in the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.

Hangal, now in Haveri dt. is also a taluk headquarters. It was the capital of the Hangal Kadambas, feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. It is mentioned as ‘Panungal’ in early records and identified by tradition with Viratanagara of Mahabharatha days Eighty km. away from Dharwad, it was once the headquarters of a district called Panungal-500. The Tarakeshwara temple here is a huge structure with wonderful series of images and polished tall Chalukyan pillars spread over a vast area. The Virabhadra, Billeshwara and Ramalinga etc., are other important temples and the Ganesha temple
near Tarakeshwara has a northern curvilinear (Nagara) Shikhara. The town is on the left bank of the Dharma river, and has ruins of some fortification on the river bank. There is also a famous Veerashaiva Kumaraswamy Matha here.

Harihara, on the banks of Tungabhadra, is 277 km. from Bangalore on the Pune-Bangalore Rd,in Chitradurga dt. The rivulet Haridra joins it here and the place was called Kudalur, and it is called as Harihara now because of the temple of the name (of Hari and Hara unified), built by Polalva Dandanayaka under Hoysala Narasimha in 1233 left on the bank of the Tungabhadra river.
This is a highly artistic monument reflecting a high degree of architectural perfection and artistic speculation. This is a higly artistic monument. There are also temples of Srirama, Dattatreya and Ishwara and the place grew to be an industrial centre with the Kirloskars starting their unit. Now the Harihara Polyfiber factory is started near Kumarapatna, a suburb of Harihara, but within
Haveri dt. border.

Hassan is the district headquarters, 186 km. from Bangalore. It is a centre of trade for coffee. Traditions say that the place name originated from Simhasanapura. The town is ascribed to a Chola Officer called Bukkanayaka of the 11th Century. The Hasanamba temple here, opens only once in a year in Ashwayuja masa (September - October) for a week for jatra. The Siddeshwara
temple here is ascribed to Belur Feudatories under Vijayanagara. There is a Jaina basadi here, and also Chennakeshava, Malleswara and Virupaksheshwara temples. The last named is said to have been renovated by the sage Vidyaranya (14th century). There is a State Archaeology Museum here. Mosale, Koravangala and Kondajji are the other important places around Hassan where fine Hoysala
temples are seen.

Haveri, now a district head quarters, situated on NH4, is 340 kms away from Bangalore. It derives its name from the tank that lies 2.5 kms from the town, built in 10-11th Century. It has few ancient temples and the Siddeshwara temple complex here of Chalukyan times is known by its sculptural decorations. Ugranarasimha and Kalleshwara are the other important temples of early times.
The Virakta Matha, Hukkeri Matha, Hosamatha, Murugaswami Matha and the Raghavendra Matha of Madhwa tradition are important. The annual fair of the Hukkeri Matha occurs in the month of January, while Siddeshwara fair falls during Dasara period. It was known for cardamum processing till recently, and is now famous for its beautiful cardamum garlands. 388 A Handbook of Karnataka

Horanadu in Chikmagalur district, situated 15 kms. from Kalasa. Besides its local history, it is also famous by its Annapurneshwari temple and its scenic beauty. Piligrim from different parts visits it in large number through out the year. Thousands of devotees are being fed by the temple authorities regularly, in accordance with the name of the presiding deity of the place.

Hubli, a part of Dharwad-Hubli twin City Corporation is 408 km. away from Bangalore, on the Bangalore - Pune road, is both a railway junction and an industrial town. Rayara Hubli, also called ‘Eleya Puravada Halli’ or ‘Purballi’ was the old Hubli, where there is a Bhavani Shankara temple and Jaina basti. Under Vijayanagara Rayas, Rayara Hubli grew as a commercial centre, famous
for trade in cotton, saltpetre and iron. The British opened a factory here when it came under the Adilshahis. Shivaji looted the factory in 1673. The Mughuls conquered it and the place came under the Savanur Nawab who built a new extension named Majidpura and trader Basappa Shetty built new Hubli around the Durgadabail (fort maidan). There is the famous Moorusavira Matha, and
the Matha authorities claim that it was begun by a Sharana of Basaveshwara’s period. Hubli was conquered by the Marathas from the Savanur Nawab in 1755-56. Later Haider conquered it, but it was recaptured by the Marathas in
1790, and the old town was administered by one Phadke under the Peshwa and the new town by Sangli Patwardhan. British took old Hubli in 1817 and the new town with 47 other villages was handed over to the British by the Sangli Patwardhan in lieu of the subsidy in 1820. Hubli is a prosperous handloom weaving centre and has a Textile Unit. The Railway Workshop started here in 1880, made it a reckonable industrial centre. The Bhavanishankar temple in old Hubli and the impressive Chaturlinga temple in Unakal are of Chalukyan times. The Siddharudhaswamy (1837-1929) Matha in Old Hubli is visited by hundreds. In addition to the impressive Moorusavira Matha, Rudrakshi Matha and Hanneradu Yattina Matha. There is Mahdi mosque at Bandiwadagase and Mastan Sofa Mosque in Old Hubli. Of the churches, the Church of Ascension (1905), Church of Holy Name (1928), St. Joseph’s (1858) and the St. Andrew’s (1890) are notable. Unakal has a church of the Basel
Mission and there is a Gurudwara of the Sikhs in Vidyanagar. The place has Medical (Govt.), Engineering and other colleges having all educational facilities. It has Indira Gandhi Memorial Glass House and Nripatunga Park on a Hillock. Kundgol, 15 km. south of Hubli, has the huge Shambhu Linga temple of Chalukyan times.

Ikkeri a capital town of the Keladi Nayakas from 1512, is avery near to Sagar in Shimoga dt. The Aghoreshwara Temple here of the Kalamukha sect is a 16th Century monument of great attraction. There is also a Parvathi temple nearby. The Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle gives a long description of this capital he had visitied in 1623. Keladi is another place nearby the original capital. It has the Rameshwara and Veerabhadra temples. There is also a Museum having rich collection of several sculptures besides, having a rich treasure of Palm leaf manuscripts. The museum has also brought out several invaluable books on several subjects of historical importance.

Itagi in Yalburga taluk can be easily reached from Gadag (about 40 km.) and is within the reach of Bhanapur, a Railway station in Gadag-Hospet line. It has the best of the Kalyana Chalukya temple called Mahadeva, described as “Devalaya Chakravarthi” (Emperor among temples) in early inscriptions, built by Mahadeva Dandanayaka, a commander of great Chalukya ruler Vikramaditya
VI in 1112 A.D. This huge temple of fine polished pillars, intricately carved broad doorways and deep Bhuvaneshwaris in the ceiling with miniature carvings is a magnificent structure of ever lasting beauty. There are a number of other temples around it and there is a huge tank in front. A Saraswati Matha meant for the residence of students is also there. Percy Brown called the temple “as
one of the best” after Halebid. Kukanur, 10 km. from here has the Navalinga temple complex of the Rashtrakutas besides the Mahamaya, Kalleshwara and Mallikarjuna of Kalyana Chalukya times.

Kalagi in Chitapura taluk, 60 kms from Gulbarga was formerly the provincial headquarters of Mannedadi-1000 during Later Chalukyan times. It has five Later Chalukyan temples. Among them, the Mallikarjuna temple standing in the heart of the village built by Bana Mahamandaleshvara Vira Gonkarasa in 1163 A. D. is a beautiful piece of architecture, erected by a team of 12 sculptors headed by
Ramoja. The Parswanatha basadi near Banasankari temple, a trikuta of 11th Century A.D., housing Parswanatha Thirthankara in the main shrine. The Kalinga temple complex situated half a km. south of the village on the bank of Kalagi stream, has some temples richly adorned with several dieties of lavish ornamentation. The Karidevaru (Suryanarayana) here, a trikuta, although
now in ruins has the sculptures of Vishnu, Brahma, Maheshwara, Bhairava, Nataraja, Uma-maheshwara, Mahishamardini, Ganapati and the Madanikas in different postures on its walls. It may be the Jayalingeshwara temple referred in a 13th century epigraph. The Kaleshwara temple here, earliest of the place, being referred to as Svayambhu Kaleshvar in a record of 1103 A.D., spaciously placed, is crowded by Nilakanta, Revana Siddeshwara, Iswara, Someshwara and Bibbeshvara on either sides with a common sabha mantapa. Adjascent to it are Kasivishvanath, Ramalinga and Nandi temples. On the north bank of Kalagi stream are, Isvara and Narasimha temples amidst a Puskarani.

Kannambadi, a Becharak village having the Krishnarajasagar Dam built across the river Cauvery. It had the Kanneshwara (Ganga) and the Gopalakrishna (Hoysala) temples of 10th and 13th Century A.D. respectively, now submerged in backwaters. Of late, both the temples have been shifted and re-constructed on a higher plain in a make-shift place due to the efforts of one philanthrophist of Bangalore. These temples are attracting the tourists in large numbers. The sculptures of these temples which were preserved in the 390 A Handbook of Karnataka newly built temples at North Bank village situated on the northern side of the K.R.S. Dam, are being shifted to the make shift temple in a phased manner. Krishnaraja Sagar (Mandya dt.) is a dam across the Cauvery, with the beautiful
Brindavan gardens. The garden with musical fountain is to be seen in the evenings.

Karkala in Dakshina Kannada (52 km. from Mangalore) has been a notable Jaina Centre with the seat of Jaina dynasty called Bhairarasas or the Santaras whose prince Veera Pandya raised the Gommata Statue here in 1432. They also built the ornate Chaturmukha basadi with four entrances, housing Arhat, Malli and Suvrata Tlrthankaras in 16th century characters the Ananthashayana
and Venkataramana temple, here are of considerable antiquity and on the bank of Ramasamudra tank is another basadi of early times. The St. Lawrence church here is highly venerated. Mudabidri in Dakshnina Kannada, situated 35 kms. away from Mangalore is one of the famous Jaina Centres of South India. Among the 18 basadis here, the Tribhuvana Tilaka Chudamani Basadi, also known as thousand pillared Basadi is the biggest. Other basadis are also attractive and the Jaina Matha has rare Jain manuscripts and remarkable metallic images. It was the capital of Chautas and in their old palace, there are some wooden pillars having Navanari Kunjara and Panchanari Turaga motifs on them.

Karwar is the district headquarter 60 km from Bangalore of Uttar Kannada district bordering Goa. The town was founded in 1863 by the British, naming it after Kadwad village (in the interior on the banks of the Kali, where they had their factory from 1638) which they used to call as ‘Karwar’. Karwar has one of the finest facilities for all-weather port with a row of islands like Anjadiv,
Kurmagad, Devgad etc., protecting it from storm. It has some of the finest beaches and is to the South of the Kali which meets the sea here. Across the Kali, crossing a new bridge is Sadashivagad, a hill fort built by Sonda Sadashiva Nayaka. Sadashivagad has a Durga temple and a Darga of Peer Kamruddin. Binaga is to the South of Karwar. It has a modern Caustic Soda factory. Goods
movement along the Kali from her mouth reached Kadra, later taken by land to the interior during medieval times. Anjadeev Island (under Goa administration) is near Binaga. The Sea Bird Naval project of the Indian Navy has come up near Karwar recently and is already functioning.

Kittur on the Dharwad-Belgaum Road, 33 km from Dharwad was the headquarters of a Desagati (minor principality) which became famous due to the revolt of Desayini Channammaji against the British in 1824. The place has the ruined Wada, a bastion, which formed part of fortification. The State Govt. Museum here has many antiquities collected from the Desai Wada. Inside the
fort is the Kalmeshwara-Temple and the place has Veerashaiva Mathas called Chauki Matha and Hire Matha. Kittur has a Women’s Sainik School. At Bailhongal, a taluk headquarters, the Samadhi of Channammaji, on which her bronze statue is installed. Degaon, five kms from Kittur has a 12th Century Karnataka, Kamala Narayana Temple in Chalukyan style, built by the Goa Kadambas. It is
a fine monument known for its sophisticated art work. Okkunda, 10 kms. from Bailhongal was an important town of Rashtrakuta times (850 A.D.). Now submerged due to Navilthirtha dam, is known by its Jaina and Shaiva Temples of Later Chalukyan times which are accessable only during summer season.

Kolar, the district headquarters, 72 km away from Bangalore is on the Bangalore-Madras Road, called as “Kuvalalapura”, the first capital of the Gangas, has the famous Kolaramma temple, originally of the Gangas, later renovated by the Cholas. Kolaramma is Mahishamardini and she is one among the seven Mothers (Sapta Matrikas) Installed there. In another shrine next to it are attractive individual stucco figures of Sapta Matrikas. The Someshwara, Venkataramana and Kodandarama are other major temples in the town. Someshwara Temple built in early Hoysala period is a State protected monument now in bad shape. The ‘Makbara’ here has the graves of Haider All’s relations. Kolar is known for its local product, the country blanket (Kambli). Antaragange three km away from Kolar, on the Kolar hills has a perennial stream emanating from the mouth of a bull. It is considered as a holy spot. The hill top has several places like Teruhalli (old pre-vijayanagara temple), Paparajanahalli and
many other seven villages. This hillock overlooking the Kolar town is a fine trekking track for the Adventure Tourism.

Kollur, one of the Shakti worship centres of Karnataka, situated 42 km. from Kundapur in Udupi District is famous by its Mukambika temple ascribed to Adi Shankaracharya. The Goddess installed on a Shri Chakra, consecrated by the saint Adi Shankara along with the Chandramoulishwara of the place was renovated and worshipped by the Keladi rulers in medieval times, is in fine natural settings on the base of “Kodachadri”.

Koppal, now a district headquarters is ancient ‘Kopana’ a major holy place of the Jainas, has two Ashokan inscriptions at Palkigundu and Gavimatha. It has a hill fort. It was the capital of a branch of Shilaharas under the Chalukyas of Kalyana. Mundargi Bheema Rao and Hammige Kenchanagouda died fighting against British here in June 1858 (during the 1857 rising series). Palkigundu
is described as the Indrakila parvata of epic fame and there is an ancient Shiva temple called the Male Malleshwara. Kinhal 13 kms away from Koppal is famous for its traditional colourful lacquerware work.

Kotilingeshwara, Kotilingeshwara temple is situated in the village Kammasandra in the Bangarpet taluk is attracting pilgrims from all over South India. This place is located on the Bangarpet KGF road. This temple project was initiated by saint Sambhashivamurthy who has his original hermitage called Valmiki Ashrama at Kammasandra who was born here on 23rd August 1947 has an ambition of accomplishing the installation of one crore shivalingas by the ardent devotees thronging the holy place. Hence the place gets the name Kotilingeshwara. This temple complex consists of more than 70 Lakhs miniature Shivalingas already installed by the devotees through their donations and voluntary contributions. Besides this there are temples dedicated to Manjunath and Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara. At the entrance to the temple complex is a tall rayagopura built in Dravidian style. The Manjunatha temple consists of a garbagriha, antharala and navaranga and an open mukhamantapa. Inside the garbagriha is a tall Shivalinga and there is a smaller shikhara atop this. There are some sculptures representing shivapurana. The Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara temple has three cells in a row consisting of all the three deities with an antharala and modern navaranga. In front of this temple is a huge Bilwa tree where it is traditionally believed young couple tieing trunk is thus surrounded by innumerable miniature cradles tied on it. There is a huge shivalinga measuring 108 ft. tall and facing this is a stone bull measuring 35 ft. tall. The annual jatra is held here during shivaratri when
lakhs of people visit the place. There are choultries maintained by the temple trust for the convenience of the pilgrims.

Lakkundi in Gadag taluk, 12 km from Gadag is one of the most famous centres of Kalyana Chalukyan art. The place has the highly ornate Kashi Vishveshwara temple in damaged condition, a twin temple, one housing Shivalinga and the other facing it of God Surya, now not seen. Another notable monument of the place is the huge Brahma Jinalaya ascribed to a noble lady called Dana Chintamani Attimabbe. This small town, full of ruined temples like Mallikarjuna, Lakshminarayana, Manikeshwara, Virabhadra, Nanneshwara, Someshwara, Nilakanteshwara and others. Lakkundi also has
a Museum of the A.S.I. There is a darga of Zindeshah Wali.

Lakshmeshwar or ancient ‘Huligere’ or ‘Puligere’. the headquarters of Puligere- 300 district in historical times, in Shirhatti taluk, is 72 km from Dharwad. The Somanatha and the Lakshmaneshwara are famous temples here and over 50 stone records found here speak of its cultural importance. It was a Jaina Centre and Shankha basadi appears to be of the days of the Chalukyas
of Badami, subsequently renovated. The Kali Masjid here is an ornate structure, built by Bijapur Commander Ankush Khan. Before Independence, the place belonged to the Miraj Patwardhan State.

Maddur, a taluk headquarters in Mandya dt. is 20 km from Mandya. It is described in early Tamil records as “Maranduru” {in Tamil, Marandu to mean medicine) and the Temple referred too there as Vaijnatha (God of medicine). While traditions ascribe it to sage Kadamba and Arjuna, it was also called as Narasimha-Chaturvedi Mangalam in the Hoysala records. Madduramma is the
village goddess of the place. The Narasimha Swamy Temple here of the Hoysalas has the seven feet Narasimha sculpture. The Varadaraja temple is a Chola structure with a 12 feet tall Varadaraja image. Vaidyanathapura five kms. from Maddur situated on Shimsha bank is famous for its Vaidyanatha temple of Chola period. Shivapura nearby place was the site where the first session of
Karnataka, Mysore Congress was held in 1938. There is a modern building ‘Satyagraha Saudha’ to commemorate it.

Madhugiri in Tumkur dt, 43 km from Tumkur, is famous for its massive hill fort. Its ancient name is Maddagiri and it has temples of Venkataramana and Malleshwara built by Vijayanagara feudatories. There is also a Mallinatha basadi. Rani Virammaji of Keladi was held captive here by Haider Ali and later, Marathas released her, but she died on her way to Pune. The fort has majestic
gateways called Antaralada Bagilu, Diddibagilu, Mysore Gate etc. Midigeshi 19 km from here is another tall hill fort of importance in Medieval times.

Madikeri, the headquarters of the Kodagu district is on the ranges of Western Ghats, 250km from Bangalore. It was the capital of a royal family called the Haleri Rajas whose rule was ended by the British in 1834. The place has a fort and a palace building in which district office now functions. The walls of the building have some paintings. There is an old Church inside the fort which houses the State Archaelogy Museum. The Omkareshwara Temple and the tombs of the Kodagu Rajas, Doddaveera Rajendra and Lingarajendra are all in Indo-Saracenic style. The Raja’s Seat overlooking the valley gives a panaromic view of the surrounding coffee and paddy growing lush geen lands. The Kodavas have their own distinct culture and folk arts; they are know for their hospitality and valourous military qualities Near Madikeri is ‘Roshanara,’ the residence of the late. Field Marshall K.M. Kariyappa.

Magadi, a taluk headquarters of Bangalore Rural dt., is 41 km from Bangalore. Kempegowda was forced to leave Bangalore in 1638 and make Magadi his headquarters where his family built the fort and the Rameshwara temple. There is also the Someshwara temple built in 1712 with Kempegowda’s hazara near it. Its wall paintings are now fading. Tirumale is a hill near the town where there is a vast Ranganatha Temple, but actually the deity being worshipped is Srinivasa as Srinivasa is standing in samabhangi with shanka chakra, varada and katihasta as per the Shilpashastra.

Mahadeshwara Betta, a hill very close to the Eastern Ghats, is 220 kms from Bangalore and 142 kms from Mysore and is in Chamarajanagar dt. A saint called Mahadeshwara who it is said, could ride tiger, lived here during the 14th and 15th century has his gadduge here. The hill is full of thick forests and thousands of pilgrims visits the place which has guest houses and other facilities. It is a very picturesque spot of natural beauty.

Mandya, a district headquarters town in between Mysore and Bangalore is 100 km from Bangalore and it has a large sugar factory (1933). Though its name is ascribed to Mandavya Rishi, records speak of ‘Mantheya’. The place has Lakshmi Janardhana Swamy temple which is a vast renovated structure. Mandya has a small zoo-garden. It is a prosperous place due to richly irrigated
lands around.

Mangalore is the ancient town ‘Mangalapura’ and is on the west coast of Karnataka with both an old and a modern port. It is the head-quarters of the Dakshina Kannada District. It was for long the capital of the Alupas. The Vijayanagara rulers posted one of their governors here. It came under the Banga feudatory and the Portuguese opened a factory here for trade and brought Roman Catholic religion too. Conquered by Haider, it became the chief port of Mysore and Sultan’s Battery near the port is the remnescents of his rule. When it fell to the English (1799) they made it the district headquarters of Kanara. The Basel Mission that came here in 1834 started an English school, printing, tile (terracotta) factory and weaving have helped to modernise the place. The first Kannada neswpaper ‘Mangalura Samachara’ (1834) was a missionary venture. Mangalore has the old Mangaladevi temple and the Kadri Manjunatha temple where once Buddhists had stayed. There are fine bronze statues of
Avalokiteshwara and Dhyani Buddha and some laterite caves around Kadri temple. The Venkataramana, Mahamayi and the huge modern Gokarna Natha are important temples of Mangalore. Bengre has a fine beach. The Light House Hill has the Idagah. The St. Aloysius College here has a chapel with fine paintings. St. Rozario Church, Church of the Most Holy Rosary and the Milagres
Church are some fine Christian monuments here. Shanti Cathedral of the Bassel Mission in also famous. The port area has an old mosque with fine wood work. Dongarkery has the Shamir mosque. Mangalore is famous for its Sea Food and jasmine known for its unique aroma. A second grade college, founded by Madras Government in Mangalore around 1869, was the first of its
kind in Karnataka. Mangalore has now a University. It has tile, coffee curing, fish processing and cashew processing units. Beedi production is a home industry. Mangalore Fertilizers and petro chemicals Industries is a major public enterprise. Mangalore has a City Corporation.

Melukote, the temple town in Mandya district is a great centre of pilgrimage. The Cheluvanarayana Swamy here was for long worshipped by Acharya Ramanuja {12th Century). The temple came to be expanded under Vijayanagar and Mysore rulers. The latter presented the temple with many costly jewels including Vairamudi, a diamond-studded crown. On the hilltop there is a
Narasimha temple also. Melukote is a great centre of traditional Sanskrit learning and the Samskrita Academy here is a newly founded institution having a huge collection of ancient palm Leaf Manuscripts with modern amenities. Mysore, the district and divisional headquarters, is the ancient royal capital nd the garden city. It is 139 km west of Bangalore. Though described as ‘Mahishapura’, the old records speak ‘Mayisooru’ which has nothing to do with Mahisha or Mahishasura. In the inscriptions found here and elsewhere the place name has been mentioned as ‘Mayisooru’ which means ‘mayi’ (antelope) and ‘Ooru’ meaning place. The Mysore royal palace is a major attraction with Indo-Saracenic exterior and Hoysala interior, completed in 1907. It is Karnataka,

illuminated during holiday evenings. The palace’s Kalyana Mantapa has fine wall paintings of the Dasara procession and Durbar scenes done in 1930s and 1940s by the Palace artists. Besides the several temples situated in the palace complex, the Kote Anjaneya, Kote Maramma, Parshwanatha (near corporation), Kanyaka Parameshwari (Doddapet and Shivaram Pet), Renuka Yellamma (Mysore Karaga fame) near zoo garden, Satyanarayana (Vantikoppal), Raghavendra Math, etc., are also important. The Chamundi Hill has a Mahishasura Statue outside, done in cement and a large entrance tower at the Chamundi Temple. Beside this temple, there is a tenth century Mahabala temple and records call the hill as “Marbala Betta”. The hill has steps and on way is a monolithic Nandi. Lalita Mahal Palace is a hotel now. Another Palace Cheluvamba mansion which is a heritage building houses C.F.T.R.I. The Jagan Mohan Art Gallery also was a palace. The Parakala Matha is an imposing building near this. Mysore has the famous zoo garden too. The Oriental Manuscript Library is also housed in an impressive building. The University was founded in 1916. The Sutturu Matha, the Railway Museum, the Premier Studio, the Ramakrishna Ashrama and the Sachidananda Ganapathi (Dattatreya Peetha) Ashrama are other attractions of Mysore. The St. Philomina Church is an impressive Gothic style of architecture with imposing towers in N.R. Mohalla of Mysore. Mysore is the most important tourist centre of Karnataka. Its Dasara festival is the most attractive pageant. Brindavan Gardens
raised on the other bank of KRS dam with attractive musical fountain is very close to Mysore city and also easily approachable. Mysore has grown to be an industrial centre too with the Railway worshop, Ideal Jawa Factory, B.E.M.L. Unit, Vikrant Tyres, etc., The Natural Museum near D.F.R.L. in Siddartha Layout and the Fantacy Park on Bangalore Road are the recent additions of
tourist interest. It has a City Municipal Corporation. Of late Mysore is being developed as a second IT city of Karnataka with the founding of Software Industries of International repute.

Nanjangud, a taluk head quarters in Mysore district, situated 20 kms. from Mysore on the bank of Kapila is famous due to the Nanjundeshwara temple, almost 1000 years old. It is a big complex having Nanjundeshwara and Parvati temples enclosed by prakara with a huge Gopura on the entrance Gateway and on the hara of the prakara, beautifully designed stucco figures of
gods and goddesses in rows are executed effectively. It is interesting to note that Tippu made donations to this temple of an Emerald Necklace. There is a Raghavendraswamy Matha, Suttur Matha and Siddappaji’s shrine of the Manteswamy tradition.

Pattadakal saw the Badami Chalukyan art in its full bloom. It is 22 km away from Badami and 514 km from Bangalore. The best temples like the Virupaksha (Trailokeshwara) and the Mallikarjuna (Lokeshwara) were built by the queens of Vikramaditya II (734-44 A.D.) in memory of his three victorious march against Kanchi, the Pallava capital. These magnificient temples with 396 A Handbook of Karnataka their nicely engraved lively figures on walls and the massive square pillars are in sand stone. Pattadakal itself was known as Kisuvolal (‘Red Town’) as the sand stone and soil here are reddish in colour. The Sangameshwara, Papanatha, Chandrashekhara, Jambulinga and Kadasiddeshwara are the other major temples here, and Pattadakal has also a Jaina basadi of the Rashtrakuta times with two beautiful elephants in its front. The Galaganath temple here which is dilapidated, has curvilinear (rekhanagara) shikhara. This place is included in the World Heritage Series by the NESCO.

Raichur, the headquarters of the district of the same name is 475 km away from Bangalore. It has a hillfort originally built in 1294 by a Kakatiya (of Warangal) officer and later expanded by the ahamanis. A 41 -feet long slab near the Raichur bus stand, fixed into the fort wall has a Telugu record and also sculptures of the scense of how huge slabs were transported atop the hill
with the help of buffalo driven carts. The outer fortification has five majestic gateways, the Sikandari Darwaza and Sailani Darwaza being impressive. The Navrangi Darwaza is created by Vijayanagara rulers with many court scenes of Vijayanagara. The town has a majestic Ekminar mosque of the days of Mohammed Shah Bahmani, The lone minaret is 65 feet tall. The Jami Masjid here is the biggest of its kind. There are many modern temples in the town of which Manikprabhu and the Ramalingeshwara temples are notable.

Sandur is a taluk headquarters in Bellary district. It is in a valley surrounded by hills, and the hills abound in quality iron and manganese ore. Sandur is derived from ‘sandu’ in Kannada, meaning a ‘pass’. It was formerly under the Maratha rulers called the Ghorpades till 1947 and the palace surrounded by a fort is an attractive building. The town has a Vithoba temple with impressive
pillars. One of the hill ranges has the attractive Kumaraswamy temple and also the Parvati temple. The Parvati temple perhaps was the original Kumaraswamy temple of Badami Chalukya times which now houses a recent Parvati figure and the Shanmukha {Kumaraswamy) temple is a Rashtrakuta structure with a modern image. The twin temples are excellent pieces of art and are in a sarene place, and are surrounded by rose gardens. The place is 12 km. from Sandur town. Not far away from here is the Nandihalli Post-Graduate Centre of the Gulbarga University and 16 km. away from Sandur is
Ramanadurga or Ramgad. There is a Rama temple on this cool hill resort, commemorating Kumara Rama, a historical figure who died fighting against Delhi Sultan’s army.

Sannati in chitapur taluk of Gulbarga district, situated 48 kms from chitapur and 18 kms from Nalwar railway station, on the left bank of river Bhima, is one of the important pre-historic and historic sites of Karnataka. It was an important Buddhist centre during both the Mauryas and the Sathavahanas. So far four Asokan edicts have been found at Sannati. In Kanaganahalli, a near by place, Buddhist stupas of Sathavahana period have been unearthed. Excavations held at this place have proved beyond doubt of its Sathavahana township. Some findings speak of its contact with Rome. But now the Chandralamba temple of the place has revived its lost glory. It is situated on a mound containing Mauryan remnants, built later during Rashtrakuta period and expanded during Later Chalukya period. People from different places throng here on the occassion of Sankramana, Sravana and Navarathri.

Saundatti in Belgaum district is a taluk headquarters (74 km. from Belgaum) and the town proper has a fort on the hill built during the 18th Century, by the Sirasangi Desai with eight bastions. Earlier it was also the capital of the Rattas who later shifted their headquarters to Belgaum. There are two small Jaina basadis of Ratta times and the temples of Ankeshwara, Puradeshwara, Mallikarjuna, Venkateshwara and the Veerabhadra. The Puradeshwara is of the Kalyana Chalukyas, dilapidated now. The Ankeshwar was built by the Rattas in 1048, also in Chalukyan style. The Renukasagar
waters (from the Naviluteertha dam across the Malaprabha) touch the outskirts of Saundatti. Yellmmmanagudda, 12 km. away from Saundatti is on a hill. This original Rashtrakuta basadi is now used to worship Yellamma or Renuka and the devotees visit it in hundreds daily. Two km. away is Parasgad, a wonderful hill fort, expanded by Shivaji, now getting dilapidated.

Shimoga a district headquarters, 274 km. from Bangalore is on the bank of the Tunga river. It was a notable centre under the Keladi Nayakas. Their palace now houses a museum of State Archaeology Department. The Kote Seetharamanjaneya temple and Sri Raghavendra Matha are the oldest in the town. Shimoga is a centre of paddy and areca trade and there is a Govt. sandal oil factory here. It is a cool place near the ranges of the Western Ghats. The place has the Bhimeshwara, Lakshminarayana and Guddekal Siddheshwara temples and the Sacred Heart Church of the Catholics.

Sirivala, situated 15 kms from the taluk head quarters Shahapur, on the right bank of Bhima has more than 20 ancient temples. Among them, 10 are within the village seven scattered on the Anabi road and the remaining three situated on the other side of the stream flowing across the village. Among the last three, named Sujnyaneshvara, Nannaiah and Nagaiah temples, the last
two are of Rashtrakuta period. Among the temples scattered across Anabi road, five are Ekakutas and the remaining two are dvikuta temples in dilapidated condition. The Pushkarnies at Sujnyaneshvar and on the Anabi Road, have the narrative panels of PanchaTantra stories depicted beautifully. Of the ten temples in the village, Siddalingeshvar temple is unique by its sarvatobhadra
plan. It is a Panchakuta temple with the main shrine at the centre and the remaining four situated on its four directions adorned with richly ornamented designs. One of the epigraphs of the place refer to Sharana Revana Siddaiah and his father Shivayogi Shantimaiah and confirm their affiliation with this place. The great Sharana Siriyalasetty is locally believed as a native of this place. There are other temples like Bala Bhimeshvara, Mallikarjuna, underground temple, Hanumantha, and an un named temple although in ruins are noteworthy.

Shivagange, a prominent pilgrimage centre in Bangalore Rural dt., is about 60 km. from Bangalore. It is a conical shaped hill and one of the caves has Shiva (Gangadhara) shrine and another cave has Honnadevl of Ganga times originally in a natural cave, which was expanded by the Hoysalas and subsequent rulers including the Kempegowdas of Bangalore. The place was also known as Kakudgiri according to tradition. One can climb further on the hill and there is Kempegowda’s Hazara with Vijayanagara style pillars, and at the top of the hill is an image of Kumbhi Basava. Below the hill there is a shiva temple called Shanteshwara, the Shankara Matha of Sringeri tradition and also a huge tank which has relief sculptures narrating epic events. There is a Lingayat Matha called Mahanta Matha on the hill, and once it is said, there were 64 Lingayat Mathas at the place. Of the many images in the Shiva temple, one of Kempegowda as a devotee is notable.

Shoropur is a taluk centre in Gulbarga district, 520 km. from Bangalore. Its real name is Surapur and it was the headquarters of a feudatory Nayakas in the heart of Sagaranadu. The place has a fine fort but the parts of palaces inside are being dismantled. Its prince Venkatappa Nayaka had revolted against the British in 1858. Meadows Taylor was the Resident here and his residence, Taylor Manzil is now used as a guest house. There is a Gopalaswamy temple in the town.

Shravanabelagola in Hassan District, 157 km. away from Bangalore is an important Jaina centre. There is a pond and two stony hills, called Chandragiri and Indragiri. Chandragiri has the Chandragupta basadi of the Gangas and the Parshwanatha basadi here is the biggest. The town below the hill has the Jaina matha whose walls have very old paintings. Indragiri has the Gommata
monolith, 58' tall, installed by a Ganga general and scholar Chavundaraya, in 982 A.D. There is also Siddhara basadi, Odegal basadi, Chennanna basadi, Chauwisa Tirthankara basadi besides the finely engraved Tyagada Brahmadeva pillar with excellent floral designs. To the north of the town is Jinanathapura which has Aregal basadi and the Shantinatha basadi of Hoysala times.
Shravanabelagola has over 500 inscriptions, and some of them record the death of Jaina ascetics and laymen by observing starvation (‘sallekhana’]. Gommata here is an image of unrivalled beauty. Head Anoiting (Maha Masthakabhisheka) festival is held once in 12 years.

Sira Tumkur district a taluk headquarters is 52 km. from Tumkur. The town called Siriya was founded by Rangappa Nayaka of Ratnagiri, a feudatory of Vijayanagara. It was conquered by the Mughuls in 1686 and they raised a beautiful garden called Khan Bag. The Jumma masjid here is a fine monument built in 1896 and the Malik Rihan’s tomb is another impressive structure. The
fort is still there in parts, was expanded by the Mughuls. The Gopalakrishna

temple here has no image, and it is said to be housed in the Narayana temple. The place was the centre of a Mughul Fauzdari and Kasim Khan was the first fauzdar. Haider secured it as a gift later. Seebi, 24 km. to the south of Slra was known earlier as Sibburu and there is a Narasimhaswamy temple built during the 18th century by Nallappa an officer under Haider Ali. Nallappa has written
‘Haider-naame’ in Kannada. The temple is profusely decorated with mural paintings depicting the themes of Ramayana, Mahabharatha and Dashavatara. There are many secular themes including erotic figures in good number.

Sirsi, a taluk headquarters in Uttara Kannada is 90 kms. from Karwar. In a record of 1150 AD from Tamadi Kallala in Siddapura Taluk, it is mentioned as “Sirise”. The place has the Shankara, Ganapathi and Veerabhadra of early times, the Triyambakeshvara and the Gopalakrishna are of recent times. The Marikamba temple of the place is said to have been built in 1689, is most
significant. Its architecture is marvellous. Its Car festival which occurs biannually in the month of Magha is attended by devotees in thousands. Mahatma Gandhi, visited this place in 1934, since Sirsi being a notable centre of freedom movement,

Somanathpur, ten km. away from T. Narsipur, the taluk headquarters and 40 km, from Mysore, has the best of the Hoysala temples constructed when the Hoysala art was in full bloom. The three vesara shikharas of the Keshava temple are in good condition. Somanathpur was called Vidhyanidhi agrahara and Somanath Dandanayaka, the commander of Hoysala Narasimha
III built the trikuta temple and the place was named after him. It is the finest monument of the place. The other temples are the Panchalingeshwara. Lakshminarayana and Narasimheswara. The Keshava temple is enclosed by a courtyard of 215 feet in length and 177 feet in breadth. It stands on a platform with triple shrines with three majestic shikharas on them with a common navaranga and main entrance. It is profusely decorated on the outer walls and there are rows of figures of Natya Saraswati, Natya Ganapathi, Mahishamardini, Varaha, Ishwara, Indra etc., and smaller figures narrating Vaishnava epics. The navaranga has 16 ankanas each with a highly decorative floral or geometric designs. The Keshava image in the main shrine is missing but Janardana and Venugopala are seen in other two garbhagrihas, are really charming. The shikharas look like highly decorated rathas. The panels on the walls of the Keshava have sign-manuals of sculptors like Mallitamma, Baleya, Chaudeya,
Chamaya, Bharmaya, Nanjaya and Yelasamayya. The Keshava temple is a must for every lover of Hoysala art. The Panchalinga do not have much of embellishment, but it has five Shiva shrines in a row.

Sonda in Sirsi taluk of Uttara Kannada is 35 kms. away from Sirsi. It is in the middle of thick forest. It was the headquarters of the Sonde rulers who were feudatories of Vijayanagara. The place when occupied by Haider Ali in 1763 lost its importance though it was a major town earlier to that. Its large number of monuments are spread over a wide area in the forest. It was a Jaina
centre, and has the samadhi of great scholar Bhattakalanka (died in 1604). There is a small Jaina Matha here. The Swarnavalli Matha near sonda is of the Smartha tradition. Arasappa Nayaka, a prince, was a devotee of Vadiraja swamy (1480-1600), a great Madhwa saint, who shifted his matha (one of the eight of Udupi) to this place and his Samadhi (Brindavana) is seen here. There is a
Trivikrama temple raised by him. The Swarnavalli Matha of the Havyaka Brahmins found near Sonda has a rich collection of traditional Palm Leaf Manuscripts. There is also the Shankaranarayana temple at Sonda and the Gaddige Matha. The river Shalmala creates a falls of 91 metres height called the Shivaganga falls, at a place five km. from Sonda. The Sahasralingas on the
rocky path of the river is a wonderful scene. Thousands visit this place with utmost devotion.

Sringeri is one of four centres in India where Acharya Shankara founded his Mathas. The place in Chikmagalur district is 334 km. away from Bangalore and is a taluk headquarter. Sringeri has an old Parshwanatha basadi. There is the Sharadamba temple ascribed to Acharya Shankara and the magnificent Vidyashankara temple on the banks of the Tunga river, built during the 14th
century. It has 12 pillars inside called Rashikambhas and sun’s rays fall on a specific pillar in the morning on each solar month. There is the Sachchidananda Vilasa Ashrama, the Kalabhairava temple, and temples built in memory of Narasimha Bharati and Chandrashekara Bharati, the previous pontiffs. The Sringeri Matha grew to be jahgir as Vijayanagara, Mysore, and other families
made munificient grants. Tipu also made liberal donations to the matha. Sringeri is a quiet serene place with many guest houses for visitors. It is a centre of Samskrit Learning also.

Srirangapattana in Mandya district is a holy place. It was also the capital of the Mysore rulers. Under Haider and Tipu, it had a population of 1.50 lakhs. It is 14 km. from Mysore, and is an island in between two branches of the Cauvery. The Ranganath temple here is ascribed to a chieftain who raised it during the 9th Century A.D. Later Hoysala prince Vinayaditya expanded the
temple during the 12th Century. The fort here was built in 1454. The Mysore rulers made it their capital in 1610 in the days of Raja Wodeyar, who took it from the Vijayanagara Governor. The Ranganatha temple is called Adi Ranga which has Hoysala, Vijayanagara and later features and the Gppura (entrance) is in Vijayanagara style. Not far away from the temple is the mosque with twin
impressive polygonal minarets. Its suburb, Ganjam has Dariya Daulat palace of Tipu and Gumbaz, the Mausoleum of Haider and Tipu both impressive structures of Indo-Saracenic style. The palace has paintints, fine wood work and it houses a museum. Paschima Vahini (the Western flow) of the river here, has many temples and old rest houses is a very serene place. The Abbe Dubbois
Church and Nimishamba temple nearby are worth seeing.

Talakad in Mysore district is a holy place on the banks of the Cauvery, 29 km. from T. Narasipur, its taluk headquarters. It was the second capital of the Gangas. They built the Pataleshwara and the Maruleshwara temples here. Hoysala Vishnuvardhana conquering it from the Cholas, built the Kirti Narayana temple. The Vaidyanatheshwara is another Shiva temple here. The Arkeshwara
at Vijayapura not far away from Talakadu, three Shiva temples here and the Mallikarjuna on hill nearby called Mudukutore together are Pancha Lingas and a Jatra in honour of these five Shiva temples is held once in 12 years called Pancha Linga Darshana. Talakadu is full of sands, carried by the wind from the dried bed of the river, which has a bund across it here, built by Madhava Mantri of Vijayanagara during the 14th century. In summer, the dried bed supplies the sand. Excavations conducted recently have brought to light remains of the early centuries of the Christian era which include beads, a gold smelting clin etc., and also the remains of a basadi and two well-like cylindrical structures made by joining earthen rigs.

Talakaveri is the point of origin of the Cauvery river in Kodagu district, 28 km. from Madikeri on the ranges of the Brahmagiri hill. There is a small square tank from which the Cauvery is believed to emanate and move for some distance as a subterranean flow. There are two shrines dedicated to Ishwara and Ganapathi here. On Tula Sankramana day Cauvery is believed to start her
flow afresh from the square tank and a large Jatra takes place here. Brahmagiri has steps from here, and atop the hill there are some remains of sacrificial attar. This quiet resort is amidst hilly forest surroundings. Tinthini, in Surapur taluk of Gulbarga dt, on the bank of Krishna is famous due to the religious harmony. Maunappaiah, the Vishwakarma saint’s tomb here is worshipped both by Hindus and Muslims with due respect.

Tumkur is the district headquarters, 70 km. to the north of Bangalore. It is called Tummugere’ in a 10th Century record. The oldest temple here is Lakshminarayana built in 1560. It came under Mysore during the 17th century when a Maruti temple was built. Nearby Kyatsandra the Siddhaganga Kshetra is situated on a hill. There is a Veerashaiva Matha at Siddhaganga known for its unique educational service. It runs a free hostel feeding nearly 5000 students. It also runs many educational institutions including an engineering college. Siddhaganga has the samadhi of Siddhalingeshwara, a Veerashaiva saint and there is a natural spring called Siddhaganga.

Udupi, a holy place and now a district headquarters is 58 kms. away from Mangalore. The Krishna temple here built and the mein deity of Krishna was installed by Acharya Madhwa (1200-1280 AD) during the 13th century. He founded eight Mathas to conduct the services of Lord Krishna in turns. This changing of turn, Paryaya festival, is held once in two years in January. The place has Kadiyali Durga temple, Ambalapadi Shakti temple, Raghavendra Matha and the Venkataramana swamy temple. Malpe a near by port has fine beach and the Vadabhandeshwara temple of Balarama. Manipal near Udupi is a great educational centre with a well equipped modern hospital and a pathological museum. It has a deemed University, MARE. 402 A Handbook of Karnataka

Ulavi in Uttara Kannada, 32 km. from Yellapur can be reached from Haliyal also. It is amidst thick forests, where there is the Samadhi of Chennabasavanna (the nephew of Saint Basaveshwara) who sought shelter here after leaving Kalyana in about 1167 when the Kalachuri king had resorted to a witch hunt against the Sharanas after the death of Bijjala. Gavi Matha here is a series of
caves in which the Sharanas lived. One cave is named after Akka Nagamma, Chennabasavanna’s mother. The imposing structure here is the Samadhi of Chennabasavanna which has Nandi installed in the sanctum. The Shikhara of this sanctum has stucco figures of the Sharanas. The temple was expanded by the Sode rulers. Every month on Poornima days, a jatra is held and the annual
jatra is held on Shivaratri days. Hundreds visit the place daily. There are some rest houses for visitors. There is also a fort in ruins called Baburayana Kote.

Yediyur in Tumkur district (Kunigal taluk) has the samadhi (matha) of Tontada Siddhalingeshwara Yati, a famous Veerashaiva saint who lived during the 16th century. The place is 30 km. away from Kunigal, Pilgrims who visit the place in hundreds daily are fed free, and there are rest houses for them. The Matha has a fine wooden chariot (ratha) with some interesting sculptures.
The place has a Varadaraja temple and two Veerashaiva Mathas. The Matha’s building has some old paintings on walls.

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History of Karnataka

  1. Kadambas of Banavasi (C.345-C.540)
  2. Chalukyas of Badami (C. 540-757)
  3. Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (C.753-973)
  4. Chalukyas of Kalyana (C.973-1189)
  5. Sevunas of Devagiri (C 1173-1325)
  6. Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra (C.1052-1342)
  7. Vijayanagara Empire (C.1336-1646)
  8. Veerashaivas
  9. Bahamani Kingdom (c.1347-1520)
  10. Adilshahis of Bijapur (1489-1686)
  11. Keladi Kingdom
  12. Mysore Rulers
  13. Haider Ali
  14. Tipu Sultan
  15. British Rule
  16. Economic Changes
  17. Anti-British Uprisings
  18. Beginning of Renaissance
  19. Modernisation
  20. Cultural Developments
  21. Fight for Freedom
  22. Gandhi in Karnataka (1927)
  23. “Quit India Movement” 1942-43.
  24. Unification of Karnataka
  25. GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS

Reference: www.kannadasiri.kar.nic.in

Karnataka has a hoary past. It is blessed with innumerable inscriptions, memorial stones and monuments of rich historical and cultural heritage. It has many sites of Pre-historic period and most of them are found scattered in the river valleys of Krishna, Bhima, Cauvery, Malaprabha, Ghataprabha, Hemavathi, Tungabhadra, Manjra, Netravati and their tributaries. The Prehistoric culture of Karnataka viz., the Hand-axe culture, compares favourably with the one that existed in Africa and is quite distinct from the Pre-historic culture of North India. Places like Hunasagi, Budihal, Piklihal, Kibbanahalli, Nittur, Anagavadi, Khyad, Nyamati, Balehonnur and Uppinangadi (Lower Palaeolithic) ; Herakal, Tamminahal, Savalgi, Salvadgi, Menasagi, Pattadakal, Vajjala and Talakad (Middle Palaeolithic); Kovalli, Ingaleshvara, Yadwad and Maralabhavi (Upper Palaeolithic); Begaumpur, Vanamapurahalli, Hingani, Ingaleshwara, Tamminahal, Sringeri, Jalahalli, Kibbanahalli, Sanganakal and
Doddaguni (Mesolithic); Maski, T. Narasipur, Banahalli, Hallur, Sanganakal, Hemmige, Brahmagiri and Uttanur (Neolithic-Chalcolithic); Rajana Kolur, Bachigudda, Aihole, Konnur, Terdal, Kumaranahalli, Tadakanahalli, Maski, Banahalli and Hallingali (Megalithic) are some of the important Pre-historic sites of Karnataka . The ragi grain is found commonly in Pre-historic sites of Africa and Karnataka . The early inhabitants of Karnataka knew the use of iron, far earlier than the North and iron weapons dating back to circa 1500 B.C have been found at Hallur, now in Hirekerur Tq. of Haveri district.

Parts of Karnataka were subject to the rule of the Nandas and the Mauryas. Maurya Chandragupta (either Chandragupta I Ashoka’s Grand Father or Samprati Chandragupta, Ashoka’s grandson) is believed to have visited Shravanabelgola and spent his last years there. Fourteen Ashokan (10 minor and 4 major) Rock Edicts found in Karnataka (two each at Nittur and Udagolam in Bellary district; one at Maski in Raichur district; one each at Gavimutt and Palkigundu in Koppal district; one each at Brahmagiri, Jattinga Rameshwara and Siddapura in Chitradurga district; and four at Sannati in Gulbarga district) testify to the extent of the Mauryan Empire. It is interesting to note that, Emperor Ashoka’s name occur for the first time in his Maski minor rock edict wherein, his familiar epithet “Devanampiya Piyadasi” is accompanied with his personal name Ashoka. Hence his Maski edict has a unique place among all his royal edicts.

The Shatavahanas(circa 30 B.C to 230 A.D.) of Paithan have also ruled over extensive areas in Northern  arnataka; some scholars even argue that this dynasty hailed from Karnataka , as in early times, Dharwad and Bellary districts were called Satavahanihara (or the satavahana region). Some of their rulers were called kings of Kuntala. At Sannati in Gulbarga district, Vadgaon- Madhavpur near Belgaum and Brahmagiri in  hitradurga district, remains of their period have been found. Banavasi in Uttara Kannada has an inscription of their queen, and at Vasana in Nargund Tq. remains of a brick temple of Shaiva order are noticed. Sannati had many Buddhist Stupas of their times covered with sculptures on them. Later, Karnataka fell into the hands of the Pallavas of Kanchi and the Chutu Satakarnis, the Shatavahana feudatories, ruling from Banavasi after the fall of the Shatavahanas, also seem to have accepted the overlordship of the Pallavas. Pallava domination was ended by two indigenous dynasties, namely the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas of Talakad, who divided Karnataka between themselves. Bird’s eye view

A bird’s eye view of Karnataka ’s political history can be presented here onwards. The Gangas and the Kadambas ruling from c.345 A.D; the Chalukyas of Badami in Bagalkot district (c.540 to 753 A.D) overthrowing the Kadambas and subjugating the Gangas; the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from Gulbarga district (753 to 973 A.D) succeeding the Badami Chalukyas, and they in turn overthrown by the Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 to 1189A.D), ruling from modern Basava Kalyana, in Bidar district. The Gangas who continued in the Southern parts, earlier as sovereign rulers (350 to 550 A. D) and later as allies or feudatories of either Badami or Malkhed rulers till 1004 A.D., paved way for the Chola rule when their territory viz., Gangawadi (Southern Karnataka ) was occupied by the Cholas. The Cholas who dominated over Southern Karnataka from about 1004 A.D. were overthrown by Hoysala Vishnuvardhana in 1114 A.D.

During the Kalyana Chalukya rule came the Kalachuri Interregnum (1162- 1184). The Kalyana Chalukyas were overshadowed by their feudatories, viz.,the Sevunas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra, who divided Karnataka between themselves; when the armies of the Delhi Sultan overthrew these two dynasties, the Vijayanagara Empire (1336) and the Bahamani Sultanate (1347) came to rule over Karnataka , and the former had control over the greater part of Karnataka . Of the five Shahi Sultanates which succeeded the Bahamanis, the Adilshahis of Bijapur (1489-1686) and the Baridshahis of Bidar (1504- 1619), who held sway over northern parts of Karnataka and at a later stage, the former dynasty overthrew the latter. The city of Vijayanagara was captured by combined Shahi forces in 1565, and the capital of the empire was first shifted to Penugonda (1565) and later, to Chandragiri (Andhra Pradesh) and Vellore, beyond the frontiers of Karnataka . It continued as capital till 1646.

Of the successors of Vijayanagar in Karnataka , among their numerous feudatories, the Mysore Odeyars, Chitradurga Palegars, Magadi Palegars and the Keladi Nayakas were the most important. The northern regions were under the control of the Adilshahis of Bijapur till 1686, when they were overthrown by the Mughals. With the weakening of the Mughal power in the North, the Marathas came to have control over northern districts of Karnataka . Haidar Ali, who usurped power from the Odeyars of Mysore in 1761, captured the Keladi and Chitradurga Kingdoms in 1763 and 1779 respectively. Karnataka came under British rule immediately after the overthrow of Tipu, Haidar’s son in 1799 and the Marathas in 1818 (when the Peshwa was defeated). But after having been subjected to a number of administrations during the British rule and witnessed active participation in the freedom struggle for Self rule, it became a single State in 1956 and in 1973 it was renamed as ‘Karnataka ’.

Kadambas of Banavasi (C.345-C.540)
The Kadamba Dyanasty was founded by Mayuravarma, son of Bandhushena in c. 345 A.D. He was a Brahmin student from the celebrated Talagunda Agrahara (an Agrahara is a settlement of scholarly brahmins, engaged in religious and academic pursuits) from Shimoga district. He had gone with his grand father Veerasharma to the Ghatika of Kanchi for higher studies. Subjected to some kind of humiliation at the Pallava capital Kandi, this young brahmin gave up his hereditary priestly
vocation and took to the life of a warrior and revolted against the Pallavas. The Pallavas were forced to recognise him as a sovereign, when he crowned himself at Banavasi in Uttara Kannada district. His Chandravalli inscription speaks about the construction of a tank at Chandravalli. One of his successors, Kakustha Varman (c. 435-55) was such a powerful ruler that even the Vakatakas and the Guptas cultivated marital relationship with this family during his time. The great poet Kalidasa seems to have visited his court.

The first Kannada record found at Halmidi (450 A.D.) in Belur Taluk, Hassan district), was issued by this dynasty. The Kadambas built fine temples and bastis and the Kadamba Nagara style Shikharas is their contribution. They also created first rock-cut shrines of Vedic tradition at Aravalem (in Goa which was under their control) in a laterite hill range. The tanks at Chandravalli and Gudnapur are among the many irrigation tanks they built. They had Lion as their royal insignia. They were overthrown by the Chalukyas of Badami in c. 540 and at later stages, two branches of the family (one from Hanagal and the other from Goa) ruled during medieval period, as subordinates of  the Chalukyas of Kalyana. A branch of the Kadambas was also ruling from Orissa as subordinates of the Gangas of Kalinga.
Gangas of Talakad (C.350-C.1024) The Gangas seems to have started their rule in c. 350 from Kolar and later their capital is said to have been shifted to Talakad (Mysore district). Elephant was their royal insignia. Till the advent of the Badami Chalukyas, they were almost a sovereign power. Many Ganga princes were not
only scholars and writers, but also great patrons of scholarship. Later they continued to rule over Gangavadi (which comprised major parts of South Karnataka ) till the close of 10th century as subordinates of the Badami Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. It is the Gangas who withstood the onslaught of the Pallavas and the Cholas,
who tried to subjugate South Karnataka . Durvinita (c.529-579) was one of the great kings of this dynasty. He, being a scholar wrote both in Kannada and Sanskrit. The Sanskrit poet Bharavi is said to have lived in his court for some time. The ancient Punnata Kingdom (the modern Heggadadevanakote taluk region) was merged in his Kingdom. His great grandson Bhuvikrama (c.654-79) was a strong ally of the Chalukyas, and at the Battle of Vilande (c.670) which was fought between the Chalukyas and the Pallavas, he helped the former to gain victory over Pallava Parameshwara Varman and snatching as a war trophy, the Pallava ruler’s necklace called Ugrodaya for himself. Mankunda in Channapatna taluk is said to have been his royal residence for sometime.

A later prince of this family, Sripurusha (c.725-88) was not only a strong ally of the Chalukyas, but also resisted the Rashtrakutas who tried to subdue him, after the overthrow of the Chalukyas of Badami by them in 753. Sripurusha, as a Chalukyan ally killed Pallava Nandi Varman II at Vilande in 731 and assumed the Pallava ruler’s title Permanadi. This great ruler also wrote a Sanskrit work Gajashasthra, a treatise on elephants. He shifted his capital to Manne (Manyapura) in Nelamangala Tq. His son Shivamara II (788- 816) and grandson Rachamalla I (816-53) continued to resist Rashtrakuta power. In the end, Rashtrakuta Amoghavarsha Nrupatunga I (814-78) sought reconciliation with the Gangas by marrying his daughters to the Ganga princes. At a later date, when the Cholas became strong, the Ganga king Butuga II (938-61) allied himself with the Rashtrakutas against the Cholas, and helped Rashtrakuta Krishna III (939-67) to humiliate the Cholas by killing the Chola
crown prince Rajaditya in the battle held at Takkolam (949) as elucidated in Atkur inscription, a unique memorial stone erected to commemorate the  demise of Kali, a hound, while fighting against a wild boar, now displayed in the Bangalore Visveswaraya museum. Finally their territory came to be subdued by the Cholas in 1004, and thus the Ganga rule ended. A branch of the Gangas ruled from Orissa from 496 A.D. and became celebrated in history as the Eastern or the Kalinga Gangas. Among their feudatories, the Nalambas played a vital role in the regional politics in accordance with the political vicissitudes of the day. Gangas dotted the country with many tanks. Kolar, said to be the core country of their initial rule, and Mysore district have many irrigational sources of their times. Their fine temples are seen at Kolar, Talakad, Begur, Nagavara, Gangavara, Nandi, Aretippur and Narasamangala. The last named has wonderful stucco figures of remarkable beauty. They also built Jaina bastis at Kambadahalli and Shravanabelagola. The Gommata monolith at the last named place, 58ft. in height is the creation of their minister Chavundaraya in c. 982 A.D.

Chalukyas of Badami (C. 540-757)
It is the Chalukyas of Badami who brought the whole of Karnataka under a single rule. They are also remembered for their contributions in the field of art. Their monuments are concentrated at Badami, Nagaral, Aihole, Pattadakal, old and new Mahakuta in Karnataka and at Alampur, Gadwal, Satyavolal and Bichavolu in Andhra Pradesh. They are both rock-cut and structural, with wonderful sculptures wrought in hard red sandstone. Their Shiggaon copper plates, speaks of 14
tanks in Haveri district. The first great prince of the dynasty was Pulikeshi I (c. 540-66 A.D) who built the great fort of Badami and performed Ashwamedha Yaga (horse sacrifice) as elucidated in his Badami cliff inscription of 543 AD, so far the earliest saka dated (Saka 465) inscription of Karnataka , after subduing many
rulers including the Kadambas. His grandson, Pulikeshin II (c.608-42) built a vast empire which extended from the Narmada in the north, to the Cauvery, in the south. In the east, he overthrew the Vishnukundins and appointed his younger brother Vishnuvardhana, as the Viceroy of Vengi. This prince founded the Eastern Chalukya Dynasty which ruled for five centuries in Andhra. (A later prince of this Vengi line, Kulottunga, even succeeded to the Chola throne in 1070). Harsha of Kanauj was defeated by Pulikeshin II. The Chalukyan army has been called ‘Karnatabala’ and described as invincible in contemporary inscriptions. He exchanged embassies with Persia and the Chinese piligrim Hiuen Tsiang visited his court. Ultimately, the Pallavas conquered Badami in c. 642 A.D. after defeating Pulikeshin II’s army. Later his son Vikramaditya I (655-81} reconquered the Chalukyan capital and reorganised his father’s empire and restored the fame of their army ‘Karnadbala’ as ‘invincible’ The representative carving of a measuring rod of 18 spans of his period found at Kurugodu in Bellary Taluk an unique example is even now visible.

Vikramaditya I’s son Vinayaditya (681-96) defeated the ruler of Kanauj, who claimed to be the paramount lord of the North (Sakalottarapathanatha). He even sent an expedition to Cambodia. He was succeeded by Vijayaditya (696-733). The Arabs who had conquered Sindh (711) under the leadership of Mohamed Khasim, tried to make inroads into the Deccan. They were defeated by the Chalukya feudatory in South Gujarat called Avanijashraya Pulikeshin in 739. The Arabs were forced to leave Sindh after this defeat. The Chalukyan empire included not only the whole of Karnataka and Maharashtra, but the greater part of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra, and also parts of Orissa and Tamilnadu. Vikramaditya II (733-744) in the line, defeated the Pallavas and entered the Pallava capital Kanchi victorious. But he did not loot Kanchi as the Pallavas had done at Badami in 642. Instead after inspecting its Jewels and Treasure, he redonated them to the Rajasimheshwara temple of Kanchi, as elucidated in a kannada inscription found carved on one of the pillars of the above said temple of Kanchi. His queens Lokamahadevi and Trailokyamahadevi built the Virupaksha and Mallikarjuna temples at Pattadakal to commemorate this victory. But the Chalukyan power was weakened in the long run by its frequent wars with the Pallavas.

Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (C.753-973)
In 753, Dantidurga, the Rashtrakuta feudatory of the Chalukyas, overthrew the Chalukyan king Keerthivarman II and his family inherited the fortunes of the Chalukyas. He claims that he did this by defeating the ‘Karnatabala’ of the Chalukyas, described as ‘invincible’ in those days. We owe the engraving of the celebrated monolithic Kailasa temple at Ellora (now in Maharashtra) to Dantidurga’s uncle, Krishna I (756-74). Krishna’s son, Dhruva (780-93) crossed the Narmada, and after defeating the celebrated princes like Vathsaraja of the Gurjara Prathihara family Dharmapala, the Gouda King of Bengal and extracted tribute from the ruler of Kanauj, ‘the seat of India’s Paramountcy’. His son Govinda III (793-814) also repeated the feat when he defeated Nagabhata II, the Gurjara Prathihara and Dharmapala of Bengal and again extracted tribute from the king of Kanauj. His ‘horses drank the icy liquid bubbling in the Himalayas’ says a record, testifying to his victorious march in the North. The achievements of the Chalukyas of Badami and Rashatrakutas by defeating the rulers of Kanauj have made the name of their era the “Age of Imperial Kanauj”, a misnomer. Instead it should be called the “Age of Imperial Karnataka ”.

Amoghavarsha Nripatunga (814-78) son of Govinda III, had to face the threat of the Eastern (Vengi) Chalukyas, who challenged his very existence. But he succeeded in subduing them after defeating Vengi Chalukya Vijayaditya II at Vinagavalli. He was a peace-loving monarch who used matrimony as one of the weapons in diplomacy. Although he killed as many as six contemporary political potentates who created trouble for him, he did not conduct Digvijayas like his father and grandfather. He succeeded in maintaining the Empire intact. Himself a scholar, Amoghavarsha patronized scholarship and great Jaina savants like Veerasena, Jinasena, Gunabhadra, grammarian Shaktayana and Mathematician Mahaveera adorned his court. Adipurana and commentaries on the Shatkhandagamas called as Dhavala, Jayadhavala and Mahadhavala written in his court were the great Jaina works of all India importance. Kavirajamarga, the first extant Kannada work is of his times composed by his court poet Srivijaya in C. 850 A.D. His great grandson Indra III (914-29) even captured Kanauj and held it under his control for two years. One of his feudatories, Arikesari of Vemulavada patronised Sanskrit writer Somadeva (of Yashastilaka fame) and the famous Kannada poet Pampa.

Rashtrakuta Krishna III (936-67) subdued the Cholas in the South and established a pillar of victory at Rameshwaram. In fact the so-called ‘Age of Imperial Kanauj’ was the Age of Imperial Karnataka , when the prowess of the Kannadiga was felt all over India. Even Rajashekhara, the celebrated Sanskrit writer, has called the Karnatas as great experts in the techniques of war. Soldiers from Karnataka were employed by the Palas of Bengal. One such Kannada warrior founded the Sena Dynasty of Bengal and the other Karnata Dynasty of Mithila (modern Tirhath in Bihar). The Rashtrakutas sponsored the engraving of many Hindu rock-cut temples on the Buddhist model like the Dashavatara Shrine at Ellora, the Jogeshwara near Bombay and the one at the Elephanta Island. (Some scholars ascribe the last named
to their Kalachuri feudatories). Arab traveller Suleiman tell us that the Rashtrakuta Empire was the largest in India and he ranks it with greatest Empires of the world namely the Eastern Roman, the Arabic and the Chinese Empires. He visited India in 851 A.D. The Rashtrakutas constructed many tanks and their temples are found at places like Sirivala, Sulepet, Gadikeshwar, Adaki, Sedam, Handarki etc., in Gulbarga district; Naragund, Ron and Savadi in Gadag district and at Hampi also. These two dynasties viz., the Chalukyas of Badami and the Rashtrakutas popularised animal husbandry by donating cows in thousands. The stones commemorating such grants (gosasakallu) are seen all over.

Chalukyas of Kalyana (C.973-1189)
The Chalukyas of Kalyana who claim to be the scions of the Badami Chalukyas, overthrew the Rashtrakutas in 973, and Taila II (Trailokya Malla), the first ruler of the dynasty, later defeated the Chola rulers like Uttama and Rajaraja I, and even killed Paramara Munja of Dhara. His son Satyashraya (997-1008) patronised the great Kannada poet Ranna. Someshwara I (1043- 1068), Satyashrya’s grand nephew, succeeded in resisting the efforts of the Cholas to subdue Karnataka , and Kalyana made his new capital (modern Basava Kalyana in Bidar district). The Chola king Rajadhiraja was killed by him at Kuppam in 1054.

His son Vikramaditya VI (1076-1127) proudly called as the Lord of more than 1000 inscriptions, is the king who started the Vikrama Saka Samvatsara on his coronation, celebrated in history as the patron of the great jurist Vighnaneshwara, who wrote Mithakshara, a standard work on Hindu law, and the emperor has been immortalised by poet Bilhana (hailing from Kashmir) who chose his patron as the hero for his Sanskrit work, Vikramankadeva Charitam. Vikramaditya defeated the Paramaras of Central India thrice and
once even plundered their capital Dhara. In the South he captured Kanchi from the Cholas in 1085, and in the East, he conquered Vengi in 1093. One of his commander Mahadeva built the Mahadeva temple at Itagi (Koppal district) one of the finest Chalukyan monument, eulogised in their inscription as “Devalaya  hakravarthy” (Emperor of Temples) His son Someshwara III (1127- 39) was a great scholar. He has compiled Manasollasa, a Sanskrit encyclopaedia and Vikramankabhyudayam, a poem for which his father is the hero. Manasollasa, a great work of multi-dimensions, which depicts the cultural conditions in South India, has sections on administration, medicine, architecture, painting, jewellery, cookery, dance, music, sports etc. It has 100 sections discussing various aspects of human activity.

The Kalachuris, who were the feudatories of the Chalukyas, overthrew the Chalukyas and captured Kalyana in 1162. Bijjala, the first emperor of the dynasty, was the grand son of Vikramaditya VI, through his motherside. He had Basaveshwara, the celebrated religious leader, as his treasurer. Though the Chalukyas staged a comeback in 1184 under Someshwara IV, their power was overshadowed by their feudatories, the Hoysalas and the Sevunas of Devagiri, who encroached upon the Chalukyan territory, and finally divided Karnataka between themselves. The Chalukyas were great builders, and their beautiful temples renowned for fine and intricate engravings are found at many places like Itagi in Yelburga taluk, Gadag, Dambal, Lakkundi (Gadag District), Balligavi (Shimoga District), Kuruvatti, Chaudadanapura (Ranebennur Taluk), Unakal in Hubli Taluk and at Nagavi, Adki, Yewur, Sedam, Kulageri, Kollur, Diggavi, Madiyala and Kalagi (in Gulbarga Dt); Kadlewada, Chattaraki, Teradal, Nimbala, Muttagi etc. in Bijapur district. They were great patrons of scholars, and Sanskrit writers like Vadiraja and Kannada poets like Ranna, Durgasimha and Nayasena lived in their times. The Virashaiva movement saw the advent of Vachana literature in Kannada, initiated by Jedara Dasimayya and Kembhavi Bhoganna. It grew during the Kalachuri Interregnum when Basava, Allama, Siddarama, Channabasava, Akkamahadevi and others lived. Virashaivism
preached equality of men, tried to emancipate women, and stressed the importance of bread-labour concept by calling it ‘Kayaka’, as the means of worshipping God.

Sevunas of Devagiri (C 1173-1325)
The Sevunas (Yadavas) who were the feudatories of both the Rastrakutas and the Chalukyas of Kalyana, became a sovereign power from the days of Bhillama V (1173-92) who founded the new capital Devagiri (modern Daulathabad in Maharashtra). Earlier they ruled from Sindhinera (modern Sinnar) near Nashik. Bhillama V
captured Kalyana in 1186, and later clashed with Hoysala Ballala II at Soraturu in 1190. Though he lost the battle, he built a vast kingdom extending from the Narmada to the Krishna. His son Jaitugi (1192-99) not only defeated Paramara Subhata Varman, but also killed Rudra and Mahadeva, the Kakatiya kings of Warangal.

Singhana II (1199-1247), the greatest of the Sevunas, extended the Sevuna kingdom upto the Tungabhadra. But the Sevunas were defeated by the army of Delhi Sultan in 1296, again in 1307 and finally in 1318, and thus the kingdom was wiped out. The Sevunas have become immortal in history by the writings of the famous
mathematician Bhaskaracharya, the great writer on music Sharngadeva, and of the celebrated scholar Hemadri. The Sevunas and the Hoysalas drained their energy in mutual warfare, and thus the south could be easily subdued by the armies of the Delhi Sultan. Sharngadeva’s work, Sangita Ratnakara, is the basis for the growth of classical music and Vidyaranya during the 14th century wrote ‘Sangitasara’ based on Sangita Ratnakara. The Sevunas built fine temples called Hemadpanthi structures which are found all over Maharashtra. The Virabhadra temple at Yedur in Belgum district is one of their structures. They renovated many temples in North Karnataka .

Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra (C.1052-1342)
The Hoysalas continued the great tradition of their art-loving overlords, viz., the Kalyana Chalukyas, and their fine temples are found at Beluru, Halebidu and  manathapura. The first great ruler of the dynasty, Vishnuvardhana (c.1108-1152) freed Gangavadi from the Cholas (who had held it from 1004), and in  ommemoration of his victory, built the celebrated Vijayanarayana (Chennakeshava) Temple at Belur, His kingdom was visited by Ramanujacharya, who stayed at Saligrama, Tonnur, Melkote and other places in Karnataka for long. Vishnuvardhana patronised the saint and although he embraced Srivaishnavism, his family religion remained Jainism. He had been earlier influenced by Srivaishnava Chola officers in Gangavadi. As he wanted to be an Emperor by challenging his overlords, the Kalyana Chalukyas
expediency forced him to perform certain Vedic rituals like Agnishtoma and Hiranyagarbha sacrifices (yajnyas). Jainism did not sanction such performances. But he continued to patronise Jainism, as many of his commanders and his accomplished queen Shantala were Jains. His commander Ketamalla built the famous Hoysaleshwara (Vishnuvardhana) temple at Halebidu. The Agraharas in Karnataka which were numerous by then had created such a healthy intellectual atmosphere that Basaveshwara, a rebel against Vedic tradition, was the illustrious son of Madarasa, the head of Bagewadi Agrahara; and Ramanuja, the great preacher of Srivaishnavism from Tamilnadu could get a hearing to his teachings from the intellectuals in Karnataka , which was denied to him in his own native country. Even his life was under threat there.

Though Vishnuvardhana did not fully succeed in his serious effort to overthrow the Chalukyan yoke, his grandson Ballala II (1173-1220) not only became free, but even defeated Sevuna Bhillama V at Soraturu in 1190, after having defeated Chalukya Someshwara IV in 1187. When the Cholas were attacked by the Pandyas in Tamilnadu, Ballala II drove the Pandyas back and thus assumed the title “Establisher of the Chola kingdom”. Later, in the days of his son Narasimha II (1220-35), Hoysalas even secured a foothold in Tamilnadu and Kuppam near Srirangam became a second capital of the Hoysalas. As a consequence, the empire was divided among his two sons and the collateral branch continued for over six decades.

Ballala III (1291-1343), the last great Hoysala, had to struggle hard to hold his own against the invasions of the Delhi Sultan. He died fighting against the Sultan of Madhurai. It was his commanders Harihara and Bukka, who founded the Vijayanagara Kindgom, which later grew to be an Empire. Hoysala age saw great Kannada poets like Rudrabhatta, Janna, Harihara and Raghavanka. Hoysala temples at Beluru, Halebidu, Somanathapur, Aralaguppe, Arasikere, Amritapura, Basaral, Kikkeri, Hosaholalu, Tonnur, Sunka Tonnur, indhaghatta, Shravanabelagola, Koravangala, Govindanahalli, Nuggehalli,Javagal, Kaivara, Turuvekere, Kaidala etc., are  onderful works of art.

Vijayanagara Empire (C.1336-1646)
When the armies of the Delhi Sultan destroyed the four great Kingdoms of the south viz., the Sevunas, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Hoysalas and the Pandyas of Madhurai, it looked as if a political power following a religion quite alien to the South was going to dominate the peninsula. Many princes including

Kumara Rama, the brave and heroic son of Kampilaraya, a feudatory from Kampli in Bellary district, perished while resisting the muslim onslaughts. The people were
bewildered over the attack on their religious places and the barbaric crudities perpetrated on the vanquished cities by these invaders from the North. Poems and  allads on Kumara Rama illustrate this bewilderment. When the Vijayanagara kingdom was founded by the Sangama brothers, people whole-heartedly supported them. Tradition says that sage Vidyaranya had even caused a shower of gold to finance the Sangama brothers. Perhaps the sage succeeded in securing financial help from various quarters to the founders of Vijayanagara. To Vidyaranya’s guru Bharatiteertha, Harihara and his brothers made some grants at Sringeri in 1346. This grant had a supplementary donation on the same day by Hoysala Queen Krishnayi Tayi, who appears to have been present on the occasion. Harihara of the Sangama dynasty (1336-1485) founded the kingdom in about 1336 and secured control over northern parts of Karnataka and Andhra from coast to coast. After the death of Ballala III (1343) and his son Virupaksha Ballala in 1346, the whole of the Hoysala dominion came under his control. The above grant noted at Sringeri with the  oysala queen, and the kingdom glorifying Kumara Rama, demonstrates its efforts as successors of these potentates that had perished. His brother Bukka (1356-77)  ucceeded in destroying the Madhurai Sultanate: He even sent an embassy to China. It is this prince who sponsored the writings of the monumental commentary on the Vedas viz., Vedarthaprakasha by engaging several scholars, working under the celebrated scholars Sayana and Madhava. The work was completed in the days of his son Harihara II (1377-1404).

Harihara II extended his domination in Konkana, beyond Goa upto Chaul. In the East, he conquered Pangal to the north of the Krishna. Efforts made by Firuzshah Bahmani to conquer this fort were foiled by Devaraya II (1424- 49), the greatest of the Sangamas, who defeated the Bahamanis when he was the crown prince, and this resulted in the shifting of the Bahamani capital to the North i.e. Bidar in c. 1426. He defeated the Gajapatis of Orissa twice and foiled the efforts of the Bahamanis to wrest Mudgal. One of his commanders even invaded Ceylon and extracted tribute, and the princes of Pegu and Tenesserim in Burma also owed him allegiance. He highly patronized the

Veerashaivas
The Hazara Rama Temple at Hampi is his creation. Abdul Razak,  the Persian traveller who visited to his court, says of the capital that “nothing
in the world could equal it.” Himself a scholar, Devaraya II patronized Gunda Dindima, a Sanskrit poet and Shrinatha, a Telugu poet.

The weak and vicious kings who followed Devaraya II in the Sangama dynasty would have caused the dismemberment of the empire, had not Saluva Narasimha, an able commander assumed power (1485). It paved way for the rule of Saluva dynasty(1485-1509) for a short while. Later, there was second usurpation, by the Tuluva  Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529) the greatest emperor, a great warrior, scholar and administrator of Tuluva dynastry (1509-1542). He secured Raichur Doab in 1512, and later marched victorious into the capitals of his enemies like Bidar (1512) Bijapur (1523) and in the East, Cuttack (1518), the capital of the Gajapatis. “A great ruler and a man of great justice” (in
the words of Portuguese visitor Paes) Krishnadevaraya was a man of letters and a great patron of scholars. He himself wrote a Telugu work Amuktamalyada.
He had eight great Telugu poets called ashtadiggqjas in his court, and among them was Allasani Peddana. He built the Krishnaswamy Temple in the capital. It was during his time that the Portuguese conquered Goa from Bijapur rulers in 1510. They had a flourishing trade with Vijayanagara, and to whom they supplied horses. Portuguese rule in Goa had far reaching effects. They introduced new floras like groundnut, chilly, tobacco etc., besides printing technology from the New World.

In the days of Sadashiva Raya Aravidu Ramaraya (1542-65), his minister or Krishnadevaraya’s son-in-law, the four Shahi Sultans attacked the Empire, and after killing Ramaraya at Rakkasa Thangadi (Rakkasagi-Tangadagi) in 1565, destroyed the capital Vijayanagara. Before that his brother Thirumalaraya and Venkatapatriya had shifted the capital first to Penugonda and later to Chandragiri and Vellore. The Tuluva rule was set aside by the Aravidu dynastry (1570-1646). Vijayanagara rulers patronized all religions. The Portuguese visitor Barbosa testifies to this catholic outlook of the emperors. Every existing temple was provided with a strong enclosure, a lofty tower at the entrance and vast mantapas. Literary activity in all South Indian languages was encouraged. The empire took upon itself the responsibility of conserving Indian traditions in philosophy, religion, science, and literature. Vijayanagara played a great role in conserving local religions and cultural tradition. In addition to the commentaries on the Vedas, Sayana compiled many works like Yajnyatantra Sudhanidhi, Ayurveda Sudhanidhi, Purushartha Sudhanidhi, Subhashita Sudhanidhi and Alankara Sudhanidhi to conserve Indian tradition. Madhava (Vidyaranya) wrote Sarvadarshana Sangraha introducing all religions of Indian
origin. His parashara madhaviya is a commentary on parasharasmriti, a work on Hindu life and law and Parashara Madhaviya has clearly stated that the Sati (suicide by a widow) is “kalivarjya”, to be abhorred totally in Kaliyuga.

he Emperors not only built fine temples of all denominations (Shaiva, Vaishnava, Srivaishnava, Jaina etc.,) but renovated many temples destroyed prior to their rule. All existing temples were provided with huge prakaras (enclosures) and tall impressive entrance towers called as rayagopuras found not only at Hampi but also at Srishailam, Kalahasti, Tirupathi, Srirangam, Chidambaram, Kanchi etc., In addition, they also provided the existing temples with vast and impressive Kalyana Mantapas or Sabha Mantapas which were open pillared pavilions. Each mantapa had scores of tall monolithic pillars which were solid pieces of art. These public works provided jobs to thousands. Their temples seen at places like Hampi, Haravu, Belluru, Kikkeri, Ambaligere, Holalkere, Sringeri, Kurugodu, Bagali, Khandya, Kalasa etc. are noteworthy. Sanskrit, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu literature flourished during this time. The Veerashaiva religion saw a renaissance. Karnataka Music came to blossom by the works of Vidyaranya, Kallinatha, Ramanamatya, Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa. Purandaradasa did a lot to popularise it by composing primary compositions to teach this music and he has been rightly called “the father of Karnataka Music” by saint Tyagaraja. Foreign merchants and travellers like
Nicolo Conti(1420), Abdul Razak (1443), Barbosa (1500-11), Paes (1520), Nuniz (1535), and Caesar Fredrick (1567), who visited the Empire give a vivid account
on the flourishing condition that prevailed in the empire in general and Vijayanagara in particular.

Bahamani Kingdom (c.1347-1520)
The Bahmani Sultans are remembered for the great contribution they made in the field of Indo-Saracenic art in the South. Founded by Alla-Ud-Din Hasan at Gulbarga in 1347, the Bahmani Kingdom clashed with Vijayanagara all through its history. Muhammed Bahaman Shah, who built the famous Jami Maszid at Gulbarga fort in 1367, is a huge monument of enduring beauty. Domes, vaultings and arches of mortar were introduced by them in their buildings of Karnataka .

Firuz Shah (1397-1422), was a great Sultan in the line and was the grandson of the founder. He extended the kingdom in the east by capturing Rajamahendri from the Reddis. He took pleasure in the society of learned men and patronized Surhindi, a scholar, and Hassan Gilani, an astronomer. He erected the observatory at Daulatabad.

Ahmed (1422-36), successor of Firuz shifted his capital to Bidar, where fine palaces came to be raised in course of time. The Solha Kamb Mosque is a fine creation of his time. He was highly devoted to Sufi saint Bande Nawaz. The prince himself was called ‘Vali’ (saint) and his tomb at Ashtur near Bidar is highly venerated.

Another great figure in Bahmani history is Mahamud Gawan, a great minister who was born in Persia (1411). On his visit to Bidar (1445) he was given an important position in the Bahamani court, and he was the chief administrator of the kingdom from 1461 till his death in 1481. He administered the territory during the minority of two Sultans, and extended it in the South upto Hubli, in the West upto Goa and the Konkan Coast, and in the East upto Kondavidu and Rajamahendri. A scholar and writer himself, he founded a college at Bidar and provided it with a library from his own personal income. The college building (Madrasa) is a fine structure. Gawan fell a victim to court intrigues and was ordered to be executed by Sultan Muhammad, whom Gawan had educated and brought up.With him vanished the glory of the Kingdom, and soon it broke up into five Shahi Kingdoms of the Deccan. The fine Indo- Saracenic buildings like the Bande Nawaz Dargah, Sath gumbaz, etc., at
Gulbarga, Gawan’s Madarasa at Bidar and his dome at Ashtur are the important contributions of this Sultanate.

Adilshahis of Bijapur (1489-1686)
Of the five Shahi Kingdoms that rose from the ruins of the Bahamanis, the Adilshahis of Bijapur ruled over the greater part of Karnataka . It was founded in 1489 by Yusuf Adil Khan, a commander and governor under the Bahamanis. The Adilshahis were great patrons of art and men of letters. Yusuf has been called “a powerful and prosperous king” by Varthema, the Italian Visitor. His son Ismail (1510-35) was recognised as a ruler by the Shah of Iran and he sent an embassy to Bijapur. Ismail’s grandson, Ali (1557-80) was in friendly terms with Ramaraya of Vijayanagara who had adopted Ali as his son. But other Shahi Sultans forced Ali to join the confederacy against the Vijayanagara Empire, whose army was defeated in 1565. The Jami Mosque at Bijapur with a wonderful design was raised by him.

Ibrahim II (1580-1626), Ali’s nephew is the greatest Adilshahi king. He captured and merged the Baridshahi Kingdom of Bidar in 1619. He was a tolerant ruler and was nicknamed ‘Jagadguru’. He built the temple of Narasimha Saraswati (Dattatreya) in the citadel of his fort. A lover of Hindu music, he had 300 singers in his court. He composed Kitab-e-Nauras in Urdu and thereby succeeded in introducing Hindu music to Muslims. The book begins with an invocation to Goddess Saraswati. He patronised great historians like Ferishta and Shirazi, and raised beautiful buildings like Ibrahim Rauza, Malika Jahan Masjid and Anand Mahal. His son Muhammad (1626-56) extended the kingdom in the south upto Bangalore and in the South-East upto Vellore. Bangalore and the surrounding regions were granted as jahgir to Shahji Bhosle, Shivaji’s father. The Marathas retained Bangalore till 1686. It is this prince who has  built the magnificient Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur. The Adhilshahi kingdom was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1686. Adilshahi buildings at Bijapur like Asar Mahal and Ibrahim Rauza have paintings. Ragmala paintings and personal portraits of members of the royal family including Chand Bibi are preserved in the Bijapur Museum. Some of the Bijapur rulers were Shiahs and celebration
of Moharram by installing tabuts became common in Karnataka . A form of Urdu called Deccani Hindi also developed in their court.

The Mughals extended their territory to the South. They conquered Bangalore in 1686 and leased it out to Chikkadevaraya of Mysore . They made Sira in Karnataka and Arcot in Tamilnadu their important administrative centres. Sira has some fine Mughul buildings. The Nawabs of Savanur, Sira and Advani administered the Kannada territories under the Mughuls, and some Kannada districts were also administered by the Nizam of Golkanda another feudatory of the Mughuls.

Keladi Kingdom
The Keladi Nayakas, who were the feudatories of Vijayanagara, became practically free in the days of Venkatappa Nayaka I (1586-1629), who merged the coastal territories like Gersoppa into his kingdom. Shivappa Nayaka (1645-60), a great soldier and statesman ousted the Portuguese from their possessions on the West Coast, namely Mangalore, Honnavar and Basrur. He reformed the revenue system, and it is renowned as ‘Sisthu’. He helped reclamation of land on a large scale.
Keladi enjoyed a rich overseas trade, especially in spices, textiles and rice.

Their capitals viz., Keladi, Ikkeri and Nagara are in Shimoga district His daughter-in-law, Chennamma (1571-97) is renowned for her Valour, as she gave shelter to Maratha Chatrapati Rajaram (son of Shivaji) and braved Auranzeb’s army. Her successor Basavappa (1697-1714) wrote shivatatva ratnakara, a Sanskrit Encyclopaedia. They have raised fine temples at Keladi, Ikkeri Nagar and a wonderful hill fort at Kavaledurga. Keladi was captured by Haidar Ali in 1763, and the kingdom was merged with Mysore . Of the other feudatories of Vijayanagara, the Kempegowda family raised the fort and new city of Bangalore in 1537, and the Chitradurga Nayakas raised the magnificient hill-fort at Chitradurga.

The Marathas, who were encroaching upon the Bijapur dominion came to have control over the parts of Karnataka to the North of the Tungabhadra. Shivaji built forts at Ramadurg, Nargund, Parasgad, Gajendragad, Katkol etc., in North Karnataka . In the South they had their Bangalore jahgir administered first by Shahji (1637-63) and later by his son Ekoji. Mysore royal family secured Bangalore and its surroundings from the Mughals in 1689 on lease. The Mughals had conquered these areas in 1686 from Maratha ruler Ekoji, a feudatory of Bijapur. Later the Marathas had secured the right of collecting chauth and sardesmukhi, a part of the dues to the Mughals from the southern feudatories in the days of Chatrapati Shahu (Shivaji’s grandson) from the Mughal Emperor in 1719. In fact. Peshwa Balaji Rao had conquered Dharwad in 1753. Later Haidar and Tipu wrested Dharwad area from the Marathas. Although the Dharwad area was restored to the Marathas in 1791, they finally lost it after the fall of the Peshwa in 1818.

Mysore Rulers
The Mysore royal family, which was also a feudatory house under Vijayanagara, took advantage of the weakening of the Empire and became free. Raja Odeyar (1578-1617), secured Srirangapattana (in 1610), the seat of the Vijayanagara Viceroy. Kanthirava Narasaraja (1638-59), the first sovereign ruler, successfully esisted the efforts of Bijapur to subdue him, and extended his territory. He built the Narasimha temple at Srirangapattan. He issued his own coins called ‘Kanthirayi panams’. Chikkadevaraya (1673-1704) not only resisted the Marathas at Bangalore and Jinji successfully, but also extended his dominions in Tamilnadu. He secured Bangalore and its surroundings (which the Mughals had conquered from Ekoji) from the Mughals on lease and accepted Mughal suzerainty. He made Mysore a rich principality by his able revenue policies. Himself a great scholar and writer, he patronized many Kannada writers like Tirumalarya, Chikkupadhyaya and Honnamma. All these were Shrivaishnavas. Weak rulers succeeded him and this finally led to the usurpation of power by Haider Ali in 1761.

Haider Ali
The defeat of the Marathas at Panipat in 1761 helped Haider to follow an aggressive policy. He merged the Keladi Kingdom with Mysore and extended Mysore in all directions. He successfully used cavalry on a large scale. Mysore came to have 80,000 square miles of territory under him. Haider built the palace at Bangalore, strengthened its fort and began the Lalbagh Garden. He built the Dariya Daulat palace at Srirangapattana and laid a fine park allround it. He challenged the British in Tamilnadu and defeated them. But he was humiliated by Maratha Peshwa Madhavarao more than once. Haider allied himself with the French against the British. In the meantime Haider Ali captured and annexed the Chitradurga Principality from the Madakari family of Chitradurga in 1779. But he died at Narasingarayapet, near Arcot, while fighting against the British in 1782.

Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan (1782-99) continued his father’s anti-British policy, and he dreamt of driving the British out of India. He sought the assistance of Napoleon, the French ruler and also the rulers of Turkey and Afghanistan. Tipu was a scholar and a bold general. He introduced sericulture in Mysore Kingdom;  and took firm steps to establish industrial centres producing quality paper; steel wires for musical instruments, sugar and sugar candy. He was very keen on promoting overseas trade and initiated State trading and founded stores not only in different centres of his kingdom but also at Kutch, Karachi and Basrah in the Middle East. He had a curious mind and was keen on introducing ovel things in every walk of life. But his ambition of driving the British failed and he died in 1799, fighting against the British. Mysore fell into the hands of the British who handed over parts of it to the Marathas and the Nizams, their allies in this venture, and crowned the Hindu prince, Krishnaraja Odeyar
III, as the ruler over Mysore kingdom, whose territories considerably reduced. They secured the territory to the north of the Tungabhadra by defeating the Peshwa in 1818, and became masters of Karnataka . Kodagu (Coorg) a small princely tributary state, was also annexed by them in 1834 by dethroning its ruler ikkavirarajendra.

British Rule
The advent of British rule brought about many changes in Karnataka , as elsewhere in India. The districts of Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Bijapur, Bagalkot and Belgaum taken from the Peshwa, were merged into Bombay Presidency in 1818. The Kanara District, now the districts of Uttara Kannada; Dakshina Kannada and Udupi; and Bellary taken from Tipu, were added on to the Madras Presidency. In 1862, the Kanara District was divided into two, and North Kanara (Uttara Kannada} was tagged on to Bombay Presidency. In 1834 the feudatory monarchy in Kodagu (Coorg) was ended and the State was handed over to a commissioner under the supervision of the Madras Governor. Sullya region belonging to Kodagu was transferred to Kanara. Mysore was retained as a separate principality; the prince of the Odeyar dynasty, Krishnaraja III, was yet a boy when he became the ruler in 1799.  The areas in the modern districts of Gulbarga, Raichur, Koppal and Bidar were handed over to the Nizam of Hyderabad. In addition to the Nawab of Savanur, there were over 15 other princes, ruling over small Kannada principalities. Most of them were Maratha rulers who included the princes of Jamkhandi, Ramdurg, Mudhol, Sandur, Kurundawad, Jath etc. Mysore , as a nucleus of Karnataka , grew to be a   ogressive State. It nurtured Kannada culture and encouraged Kannada literature and scholarship. But for the Mysore State, Karnataka would have lost its identity. Purnayya was made the Chief Administrator (Diwan) during the minority of Krishnaraja III, and later in 1810, Krishnaraja himself assumed administration. But the
Nagar Uprising of 1831, resulted in the East India Company assuming the Mysore administration in 1831, and Mysore came to be ruled by the British Commissioners for 50 years.

The prince, who was a great scholar and lover of literature, spent the rest of his life in literary and artistic pursuits. The Mysore court became a major centre of Rennaisance in Karnataka . He founded the Raja School for teaching English in 1833, which became the nucleus of the Maharaja’s high school and later upgraded as Maharaja’s College (1879). He also started a lithographic press called Ambavilasa (1841) and started printing books in Kannada. Modern Mysore Of the Commissioners that ruled Mysore between 1831 and 1881, two are the most notable viz., Mark Cubbon (1834-61) and Lewin Bowring (1862-70). To these two goes the credit of making Mysore a modern State by organizing the administration on European lines and bringing it on par with the other districts in the British residencies. They also encouraged education by increasing the number of schools. By building roads and railways, and by introducing the telegraph, an infrastructure was  rovided for industrial progress, which they had not anticipated.

The year 1881 saw the Rendition, when Chamarajendra Odeyar, the adopted son of Krishnaraja III, secured the throne. He was assisted by able Diwans like  angacharlu and Sheshadri Iyer. Rangacharlu, the first Diwan, founded the Representative Assembly in Mysore in 1881, and thus prepared the ground for responsible government. He encouraged Kannada scholarship. The prince was also a great lover of literature and fine arts. The prince died in 1894, and young Krishnaraja Odeyar IV was crowned the king, and the Queen-Mother Vanivilas became the Regent. Sheshadri Iyer continued as Diwan till 1901.

Economic Changes
Diwan Purnayya raised a dam across the river Cauvery at Sagarakatte to improve irrigation. The laying of first railway line (Broad-gauge) between Bangalore and Jolarpet initiated during the regime of Cubbon, started functioning from 1864, when Bowring was the Cmmissioner. Cubbon was also responsible for the construction of new roads exceeding 2560 kms. in length, with 300 bridges. Coffee plantations, also started by him covered over 1.50  akh acres. He also founded the Public Works and Forest Departments. District Savings Bank were started in Princely Mysore in 1870. Rangacharlu got the Bangalore-Mysore metre gauge rail line ready by 1882, (which was initiated earlier during commissioners rule in 1877-78) by spending a sum of Rs.55.48 lakhs. The work on the line was started as famine relief during the severe famine of 1876-78, which took the toll of one million lives in Mysore State alone.

Sheshadri Iyer who initiated gold mining in Kolar region in 1886, created the Departments of Geology (1894), Agriculture (1898), and launched the Vanivilasa Sagara Irrigation Scheme in Chitradurga district. The Shivanasamudra Hydro-Electric Project, which supplied power to Kolar Gold Fields in 1902, later, also provided  ectricity to Bangalore city in 1905 (first city to obtain electrical facilities in the whole country) and for Mysore in 1907, was the first major project of its kind in India. Although it is interesting to note that in 1887, an Hydro Electric project was started at Gokak in a small scale by Gokak Spinning Mill. The Bangalore Mill was started in 1884 and it was taken over by the Binnys, Bangalore Woolen, Cotton and Silk Mills in 1886.

It was about this time that elsewhere in Kamataka too, modern industrialisation started and railway and road transport facilities began to improve. Harihara-Pune railway line was completed in 1888. Mangalore was connected by rail with Madras in 1907. The Gokak Spinning Mill (1885) had been founded by securing power from the Gokak Falls (1887) and Mangalore had some tile factories, first initiated by the Basel Mission (1865). A spinning and weaving mill was also started at Gulbarga in 1888. Gold mining had started in the Hatti region of Raichur District after priliminary investigations in 1886. Hubli and Gadag had many ginning mills by then. Thus Industrialization gave impetus to urbanisation and modernisation. Agriculture was also receiving great fillip because of better irrigation and demand for raw materials. The ‘Cotton Boom’ of the 1860s of the American Civil War days gave impetus to raising cotton crop, and though demand from Manchester fell after the 1860s, new factories founded at Bombay and Sholapur (Sollapur) did purchase cotton from North Kamataka area. But spinning, a domestic industry which provided hither-too jobs to lakhs of women by assuring a wage equal to a farm worker, was totally destroyed after the Industrial Revolution, and so was weaving. Thus pressure on land increased.

Anti-British Uprisings
Karnataka did not tamely submit to the foreign rule of the British. There were anti-British violent uprisings between 1800 and 1858. The earliest of these was of Dhondia Wagh, who after the fall of Tipu, unfurled the flag of revolt against the British in 1800 from the Bidanur-Shikaripur region; many former princes joined him. His revolt spread from Jamalabad to Sode in Coastal Districts and above the Ghats upto Belgaum and Raichur Districts. He was killed at Konagal in September 1800, and his colleague Krishnappa Nayak of Belur (Balam) was killed in February 1802. This was followed by the Koppal Rebellion led by one Virappa in 1819. The year-1820 saw the Deshmukh rebellion near Bidar. A strong revolt was witnessed at Sindhagi in Bijapur District in 1824. The revolt of Kittur Channamma in 1824 and of Sangolli
Rayanna in the same kingdom in 1829 are also famous. This was followed by the Nagar Uprising of 1830-31 accompanied by similar agrarian revolts in the Kanara District in 1831. Sarja Hanumappa Nayak of Tarikere also joined the insurgents. Though this revolt failed, it cost Krishnaraja III his throne. There was an uprising in Kodagu during 1835-37, which was also strong in Dakshina Kannada (Sullya and Mangalore). One former official of the Peshwa called Narasappa Petkar organized a revolt against the British in 1841. Karnataka responded to the 1857-58 uprisings positively. In November 1857, the Halagali Bedas revolted against the Arms Act. The rulers of Naragund and Surapur, joined by Mundargi Bheemarao, a Zamindar and the Desais of Govanakoppa, Hammige, Soraturu etc, also revolted in 1858. There was a long revolt in Supa jointly led by men from Goa and Uttara Kannada who included some Siddis (Negroes) in 1858-59.

Though the uprisings were suppressed, their lessons were not totally forgotten. It was the Nagar Uprising (1830) which ultimately resulted in the founding of Mysore Representative Assembly in 1881. The British learnt to respond to the grievances of the people quickly. Local self governing bodies were founded in towns in 1850’s and 1860’s. People also learnt that without proper organisation, it is not possible to free the country from the British. The British also felt the need to improve the means of transport and communication to enable them to meet situations of breach of peace. The communication facilities initiated by them mainly served their colonial economic purposes.

Beginning of Renaissance
The new administration everywhere helped the spread of modern education.Christian Missionaries also started education on Western lines. There were over 2000 primary schools in Mysore State by 1881. Bombay- Karnataka area had over 650 primary schools by that time. Though there were only Marathi schools in Bombay-Karnataka , men like Elliot and Deputy Channabasappa strove to introduce Kannada medium. A college was started at Bellary in 1869. A Government college was founded at Bangalore in 1870 (named Central College in 1875) and later Bangalore saw a second institution, the St.Joseph’s College, in 1882. The Maharaja’s College of Mysore was started in 1879. The Government College of Mangalore was founded in 1869, followed by the St.Aloysius College in 1879. Christian Missionaries started printing in Kannada as early as 1817 (first from Serampore near Calcutta) and the first newspaper named ‘Mangaluru Samachara’ was started by the Basel Mission in 1843. Many old Kannada classics were printed. All these developments helped literary activity on new lines. Prose became popular and secular themes appeared in literature.

Many newspapers and journals were published in Kannada. They include ‘Kannada Samachara’ (Bellary 1844), ‘Chandrodaya’ (Dharwad 1877), ‘Karnataka Prakashika’ (Mysore 1865) and ‘Arunodaya’ (Bangalore 1862). These are a few of the many such efforts. Lyrical poetry in Kannada also came to be composed, beginning with the prayer songs composed by the Missionaries. Mysore court also encouraged many writers. Mudramanjusha (1823) by Kempunarayana
was the first important prose work. Many English and Sanskrit plays were translated. The first original Kannada social play was Iggappa Heggadeya Prahasana (1887) by Venkatarama Shastry. The first original Kannada social novel was Suryakanta (1892) by Gadagkar, though social novels had been translated from English, Marathi and Bengali too by then. The stage art and music also were influenced by these changes. New drama troupes came into existence at Gadag (1874) and Halasangi and there was a troupe at Mysore too. The visit of Marathi troupe from Sangli in 1876-77 and the Victoria Parsi Company in 1878 to Karnataka , revolutionized stagecraft here. Veena Venkatasubbayya, Sambayya and Chikkaramappa were some of the great veena masteroes in the Mysore court at this time. A distinct Mysore school of Karnatak music was evolved during this period.

In architecture, Western impact was seen. The Central College building (1860) in Gothic style, the Athara Kachery (1867) with ionic pillars and the Bangalore Museum Building (1877) in Corinthian style were built during this period. The Basel Missionary introducing light tiles from Mangalore revolutionised architectural patterns. Churches too introduced the Western style. Our Lady of Sorrow Church (Mangalore 1857), St.Mary’s Church (Shivajinagar, Bangalore, 1882), St. Joseph’s Seminary Church (Mangalore 1890) and St.Mary’s Church (Belgaum, 1896) are some such early examples. Many social movements stirred Hindu society and social changes received an impetus. The propoganda of the Christian missions was also responsible for this, especially of the newly founded Protestant missions, though in a
negative way. The Theosophical Society started its work in Mysore State in 1886, Brahma Samaj started its activities at Bangalore in 1866 and also at Mangalore in 1870. This was followed by the Depressed Classes Mission, founded by Kudmul Ranga Rao at Mangalore in 1897, which started many schools for the depressed classes. Bangalore had the Indian Progressive Union in 1894. Mysore State banned the marriage of girls below eight. Sheshadri Iyer started separate schools for the untouchables as they were hesitating to attend other regular schools. The Maharani’s school for girls founded in 1881 at Mysore by Palace Bakshi Ambale Narasimha lyengar became a high school in 1891 and later into College in 1901. The Ramakrishna Mission was founded in Bangalore in 1904. These developments mainly helped emancipation of women and attempted eradication of untouchability.

It was in this atmosphere that the history of the State also came to be written. Fleet’s Dynasties of Canarese Districts (1882), Bhandarkar’s Early History of Dakhan (1884), Rice’s Epigraphia Carnatica volumes (beginning from 1886), Indian Antiquary volumes from 1872 and Sewell’s A Forgotten Empire (1901) helped the recovery of Karnataka ’s history, and made the people of Karnataka feel proud of their hoary past. This paved the way for the high renaissance and the national awakening in the 20th century.

In the princely State, amidst all these developments, the first ever Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition was organised at Mysore in 1888. The Karnataka   idyavardhaka Sangha of Dharwad (1890), the Mythic Society of  Bangalore (1909), the Karnataka Ithihasa Samshodhana Mandala of Dharwad (1914) further helped the Renaissance. An all-Karnataka literary and cultural forum was founded in 1915, and this was the Karnataka Sahitya Parishat, with its headquarters in Bangalore. It had the active support of the Mysore

Government and its president, H.V. Nanjundaiah also became the Vice- Chancellor of the newly founded Mysore University (1916). Aluru Venkatarao wrote ‘Karnataka Gata Vaibhava’ in 1917, introducing to the Kannadigas in Kannada, the history and cultural achievements of Karnataka . Written in a tone, highly charged with emotion, the work played an important role in inculcating national feelings. He was the Father of the Karnataka Unification Movement also.

Modernisation
Princes of Mysore were all enlightened administrators and their genuine interest in the progress of the State, won them the affection and respect of the people. All of them were patrons of learning, literature, music and other fine arts. Krishnaraja Wadeyar IV, who ruled from 1902 to 1940, led an unostentatious life and combined piety with a modern outlook. During his reign the State made rapid progress in all directions. His younger brother Kanthirava Narasimharaja Odeyar, the Yuvaraja of Mysore , was also a generous patron of fine arts; for many years he was the Honorary President of the Kannada Sahitya Parishat. His son, Jayachamaraja Odeyar, who came to the throne in 1940, proved as enlightened as his uncle. When the country won independence, Mysore acceded to the Indian Union. Jayachamaraja Odeyar served as Governor, and won an enduring place in the heart of the people The Diwans in charge of the administration in Mysore made the Principality
not only a modern state but also a model state is already observed.

Diwan P.N. Krishnamurthy (1901-06) improved the administration by introducing upto- date methods followed in British India in office procedure and maintenance of records, and he founded the Co-operative Department in 1906. The next Diwan V.P. Madhava Rao, founded the Legislative Council (1907), the second chamber, and took measure for forest conservation. The Central Co—operative Bank was also his creation. An Engineer with alarming vision, great economist and administrator of foresightedness, Sir. M. Visveswaraya became the Diwan in 1912. He was a man of vision and a dynamic administrator and during his brief period of administration that the Kannambadi Reservoir Project initiated earlier was started and top priority was given to its construction. He founded many industries and undertook such progressive and far-reaching administrative measures that he came to be known as “the Maker of Modern Mysore ”. The Sandalwood Oil Factory of Mysore (1916), Mysore Chrome Tanning Factory (1918), Government Soap Factory in Bangalore and the Wood Distillation Factory at Bhadravati were also founded by Sir.M. Visveswaraya. The iron unit at Bhadravati was also his brain-child. He founded the Engineering College at Bangalore (1917), the Medical School at Bangalore (1917), the Agricultural
School (1913), the nucleus for the future University of Agricultural Sciences), and the Mysore University (1916) were also his creations. The Mysore Bank was also started in his time (1913) and so was Mysore Chamber of Commerce (1916).

Another important Diwan was Sir Mirza M. Ismail (1926-41) who was responsible for making Mysore as one of the best known Princely States in India by expanding its industries, founding new ones and undertaking major irrigation projects. Mysore State served as a strong nucleus of Karnataka by its economic progress and cultural achievements.

Plantation industries was expanded both in Mysore and Kodagu. Kannambadi project commissioned during early Diwans regime was completed when Sir Mirza was the Diwan. It gave impetus to Sugarcane growing and helped the founding of Sugar-Factories at a later date. Under Diwan Mirza Ismail, the Cauvery Upper Canal was commissioned, benefiting over one lakh acres of land. Industrialization in Mysore was in full swing. The Bhadravati Iron factory had been founded by Sir. M. Visveswaraya and Sir Mirza Ismail expanded it by adding a steel unit.’

The District Savings Banks, attached to District Treasuries were started in 1870. Bangalore saw three banking companies in 1868, and a total of 24 such institutions  ere seen by 1876 in the city, though not many survived. Chitradurga Savings Bank was founded in 1870. Madras Presidency Bank had founded its branch at Bangalore in 1864. South Kanara had its Banking Companies like the Canara Bank, (Mangalore) (1906) and Corporation Bank (Udupi) (1906). Later came the Pangal Nayak Bank (1920), Jayalakshmi Bank (1923), Karnataka Bank (1924), Udupi Bank (1925), Catholic Bank (1925), Vijaya Bank (1925) and the Syndicate Bank (1925). The Town Co-operative Bank was started at Hospet in 1915. Dharwad District saw many Co-operative Societies beginning with the one at Kanaginal in 1906, most of them in present Gadag district. The Dharwad D.C.C. Bank was started in 1916. Co-operative movement also made great strides in Kodagu, Udupi and Dakshina  annada.

Tile industry was expanded in South Kanara and Cashewnut husking units were also started in 1924 such as the Pierce Leslie and the Mallya Cashew. Beedi rolling in Coastal region and Agarbati production in Mysore State were started as domestic industries in an organised way. The Swadeshi Movement gave a fillip to industrial activity in the British districts of Karnataka . A big oil mill viz., B.T. Mills, was started at Davangere in 1918, and several Cotton ginning factories had been started in the town, even earlier to this.

Sir Mirza Ismail was responsible for the founding of many new industries in Mysore State as already noted. He founded the Government Cement Factory (1936) and Mysore Paper Mills (1938) both at Bhadravati. The Sugar Factory at Mandya (1934), the Mysore Chemical and Fertilizers Factory (1937) at Belagola (the first of its kind in India) and the Glass and Porceline Factories (1939 )at Bangalore to mention only a few. It was he who initiated plans to produce power at Shimsha and Jog and the most important industry initiated during his time was Hindustan Aircrafts in 1940. Moreover, Kaiser-I-Hind Wollen Mill had started production in 1922, and it was followed by the Minerva Mills.

Thus industrialisation was in full swing, and the Second World War gave a further fillip. At Harihara was started the Mysore Kirloskars machine shop in 1941. The Davanagere Cotton Mills started in 1939 gave a fillip to the founding of more such mills in the town. Sugar factory was founded at Hospet in 1935, followed by the Munirabad Sugar Mills in 1944. The Faruk Anwar Oil Mill was started at Raichur in 1944. Oil mills, Soap units, Saw mills, etc, came to be founded in small towns too. Banks and the Co-operative sectors provided the necessary finance.

Cultural Developments
The High Renaissance of the 20th century saw many great developments in the field of music, drama, painting and literature. The Mysore court patronized great artistes like Veene Sheshanna, Lakshminarayanappa, Bakshi Subbanna, Vasudevacharya, Mutthayya Bhagavatar and Bidaram Krishnappa. The younger generation also had its great masters like T. Chowdaiah, who evolved the seven stringed violin, and B. Devendrappa. There were great classical dancers like Jatti Thayamma and Muguru Subbanna in princely Mysore . In the field of drama, Mysore saw great artistes like Varadacharya, Gubbi Veeranna, Subbayya Naidu, and Smt. Malavalli Sundaramma. There were equally great artistes from North Karnataka area like Shirahatti Venkoba Rao, Garuda Sadashiv Rao and Vamanarao Master. Kailasam and Bellary Raghava were great amateur artiste. Kannada films, too, appeared. The North Karnataka area had great Hindusthani vocalists like Savay Gandharva (Rambhau Kundgolkar), Panchakshari Gavayi, Puttaraja Gavayi and Mallikarjuna Mansur.

Painting also received patronage at the hands of the Mysore prince. The Prince even sent K. Venkatappa to Shantiniketana for training and this painter won world renown. He was also a sculptor. Another noted sculptor from Mysore was Siddalingaswamy. The Chamarajendra Technological Institute (Mysore ) was founded to train artists and Jaganmohan Palace was converted into an art gallery. The traditional Gudigars of the Malenadu (Sagar-Sirsi area), imbibing modern techniques and ideas, started producing fine figures in wood and ivory, which secured a world market. Their handiwork can be seen in the decoration of Mysore palace and Vidhana Soudha.

The Renaissance had its impact on literature too. Prose writing became popular and journalism also grew. Several forms of literature like the short story, the essay, the novel, drama and lyrical poetry, developed in Kannada. Masti Venkatesha lyengar, Panje Mangesha Rao, M.N. Kamath and Kerur Vasudevacharya were some of the early short story writers followed by ‘Ananda* ‘Anandakanda’, A.R. Krishna Sastry, K. Gopalakrishna Rao, Krishnakumar Kallur, ‘Anakru’ (A.N. Krishna Rao). ‘Bharatipriya’ (Venkata Rao), Gorur Ramaswamy lyengar, Dr. R.S. Mugali, Gauramma and ‘Raghava’ (M.V. Seetharamaiah). Shivaram Karanth and ‘Anakru’ {A.N. Krishna Rao) are the two celebrated novelists. English Geethegalu (1921) by B.M. Srikanthaiah is the first collection of modern lyrics in Kannada. He was followed by Govinda

Pai, Dr. D.V. Gundappa, Dr. Bendre, P.T. Narasimhachar, G.P. Rajarathnam, Panje Mangesha Rao, Kadengodlu Shankara Bhatta, Dr. V. Sitharamaiah, Dr. V.K. Gokak and Dr. K.V. Puttappa (Kuvempu). Govinda Pai was the pioneer in discarding the rhyme (1911,) Modern Kannada play had its pioneers like B.M. Srikanthaiah, Samsa, Kailasam, Sreeranga and Shivaram Karanth. Publication of Epigraphia Carnatica volumes covering epigraphs from all districts by Rice and R. Narasimchar is a pioneering and unparallelled achievement of the erstwhile Mysore State. Dr. R. Shama Shastry (who discovered Kautilya’s Arthashasthra), and Prof. M. Hiriyanna by their Indological studies, brought world fame to Mysore and Karnataka . Printing became wide spread. Newspapers played an important role, helping literary growth, spreading modern and scientific ideas, propagating patriotism and progressive social views and trying to encourage everything that is good in arts. In Mysore , M. Venkatakrishnaiah was running ‘Vritthantha Chinthamani’ (1885). The ‘Mysore Standard”, the ‘Mysore Star’ etc, were some other newspapers from Mysore State. Coastal Karnataka had the ‘Suvasini’ (1900), The Krishnasukti (1905) and the ‘Swadeshabhimani’ (1907). The Karnataka Vrittha’ (1890), (edited by Mudavidu Krishna Rao), the ‘Kannada Kesari (Hubli 1902) the ‘Rajahamsa’ (Dharwad, 1891) and Karnataka Vaibhava (Bijapur 1897) were the periodicals from North Karnataka . The freedom movement stimulated the publication of many new newspapers.

Fight for Freedom
The Freedom Movement and the demand for Unification of Karnataka became very strong in Karnataka after 1920. They are the climax of the trends witnessed in renascent Karnataka . The freedom movement influenced literature, journalism, arts, industries and even society. It sponsored with great zeal, the programme of eradication of untouchability and emancipation of women. The achievement of social unity and undoing on an large scale of caste prejudices was also the work of the movement. The Veerashaiva Mahasabha (1904), the Okkaligara Sangha (1906) and other such organisations helped to spread education and the creation of a  onsciouness of their rights among  the backward classes. In 1917 was founded the Praja Mitra Mandali in Mysore and in 1920 Brahmanetara Parishat at Hubli with similar goals was started. Though these movements were against Congress which spearheaded freedom struggle, but in the long run, they whole-heartedly joined Congress in its struggle for freedom. Four persons (one from Belgaum and three from Bellary) from Karnataka went to attend the first session of Congress at Bombay in 1885. The impact of Bala Gangadhara Tilak and his journal ‘Kesari’ on Karnataka was great. The Bombay State Political Conferences were held at Dharwad (1903), Belgaum (1916) and Bijapur (1918) in North Karnataka area, which were then under the Bombay Presidency. There was picketing of liquor shops in Belgaum in 1907 (during the Swadeshi movement, following ‘Vangabhanga’ or Partition of Bengal) and 15 people were imprisoned. National

Schools were founded at Belgaum, Dharwad, Hubli, and Bijapur. Theosophists earlier had founded the National High School at Bangalore in 1917. Meanwhile, on returning from South Africa in 1915, when Gandhi (1869- 1948) visited Madras, at the request of D.V. Gundappa, he made a short visit to Bangalore on May 8th 1915 to unveil the portrait of Gopala Krishna Gokhale, and on his way to Bangalore, he was garlanded and honoured on the platform at the Bangarapet Railway Station by the Local Gujarati merchants. In fact, this was his first visit to the Princely State of Mysore . In 1916 he visited Belgaum and stayed there for 5 days by inaugurating the Bombay State Political Conference.

The first Karnataka State Political Conference was held at Dharwad in 1920, and according to its decision, nearly 800 people from Karnataka attended the Nagpur Congress in 1920. At Nagpur, Karnataka secured a separate provincial Congress Committee (1921) and GangadharaRao Deshpande of Belgaum was made the first K.P.C.C. President. In the meantime, as a part of Khilafat Movement, Gandhi visited Bangalore on 11-8-1920 and after addressing the public speech, he left for Madras. A week later, while returning from his Madras tour, Gandhi visited Kasaragod and Mangalore on 19-8-1920.

During the same year, on November 7th Gandhi visited Nippani, Chikkodi, Hukkeri, Sankeshwar and halted at Belgaum. On 10th November he visited Dharwad and on the following day after addressing the gatherings at Hubli and Gadag, he left for Miraj. During 1921, he visited Bagalkot, Bijapur and Kolhar on 27th and 28th May. In the same year, unavoidable circumstances forced him to stay at Bellary Railway Station for few hours on 30th September night. Later he proceeded to Guntkal in the morning.

Meanwhile, Non Co-operation Movement of 1921-22 saw many lawyers giving up their practice and many students boycotting schools and colleges. Khilaphat Movement was also launched with this. Nearly 50 National Schools were started  in Karnataka and over 70 persons from the British Districts courted arrest.
Picketers were fired on in Dharwad and Bangalore, and three Khilaphat workers  died in Dharwad and two in Bangalore Cantonment. Dr. Hardikar from Karnataka , organised Hindusthani Seva Dal, a voluntary corps with Hubli as its all-India headquarters. The Belgaum Congress of 1924 (20th December to 27th December), presided over by Gandhiji was a grand success, and was greatly responsible for public awakening in the State. Gangadhara Rao Deshpande, Hanumanta Rao Kaujalgi and Shrinivasarao Kaujalgi of Bijapur, Tekur of Bellary and Karnad Sadashiva Rao of Mangalore were some of the early leaders of Congress from Karnataka .

Gandhi in Karnataka (1927)
Meanwhile, Gandhi undertook the Khadi campaign tour in 1927. As a part of it he visited Nippani (31st March) and in the course of it he fell ill with a slight paralysis stroke. On the doctor’s advise, (1st April) he left Belgaum to

Amboli for rest. But, being unsatisfied there, he left for Nandi via Belgaum on 19th April and reached Nandi on 20-04-1927. In Nandi he rested for 45 days (20-4-1927 to 05-6-1927) and reached Bangalore via Chikballapur on 5th June 1927, where he stayed upto 30-8-1927. During his long stay at Bangalore he made brief trips to Yelahanka (2-7-1927), Tumkur and Madhugiri (14th to 16th), Mysore , KRS, K.R. Nagar and Srirangapattana and returned to Mysore (23rd July); Ramanagar and Kanakapura (31st July and 1st August); Arasikere (2nd August); Holenarasipur and Hassan(2nd and 4th August); Davangere (12th August); Harihara, Honnali and Malebennur (13th August); Shimoga (14th and 15th);Ayyanuru, Kumshi, Choradi, Ananthpur and Sagar (16th August); Thirthalli, Mandagadde, Gajanur and halted at Shimoga (17th August); Bhadravathi, Kadur and Birur (18th August); Chikmagalur (19th August); Belur, Halebid and Arasikere (20th August) ultimately left Bangalore
for Vellore on 30-8-1927.

Later, the Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Gandhiji in 1930, began in Karnataka with Salt Sathyagraha at Ankola, followed by various programmes of law breaking like Jungle Sathyagraha, Picketing of liquor shops, Non-payment of Pasture Tax (hullubanni) and finally No-Tax Campaign when peasants refused to pay land revenue. Over 2,000 people courted arrest in the British districts, Belgaum District’s quota being the biggest i.e., 750. The movement was resumed in 1932 after the nine-months lull following the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, with greater vigour. The No-Tax Campaign launched in Siddapura and Ankola taluks was an epic struggle. The lands of over 800 families were confiscated and 1000 people went to jail in Uttara Kannada alone; among them were one hundred women, and most of them were illiterate and even conservative widows with shaven heads. They got their lands back only in 1939, and till then they suffered in silence.

Programmes and propaganda to eradicate Untouchability were launced in Karnataka , when Gandhiji undertook a fast over the issue in 1932. The highlights of the programme was to make the Harijans to enter the Marikamba Temple of Sirsi and the Basavangudi of Bangalore. Gandhiji also toured Karnataka as a part of his programme of upliftment of Harijans in 1934 and 1936. By then, Harijan Sevak Sangh’s Karnataka unit was founded with Sardar Veeranagauda Patil as the President.
Gandhi in Karnataka (1934)

During his 1934 tour, Gandhi visited Vidhuraswatha, Gowribidanur, Doddaballapur, Tumkur, Tyamagondalu, Nelamangala, Bangalore and halted at Mysore on 4-1-1934 ; visited Tagadur, Badanawal, Nanjanagud and halted at Mysore (5th January); proceeded to Mandya, Sugar town, Maddur, Besagarahalli,Shivapura, Somanahalli, Channapatna, Ramanagar, Kanakapur, Bidadi, Kengeri and reached Bangalore (6th January). On 10th left for Vallavi Kote and after touring Tamil Nadu, visited Mysore , Tittimatti, Kikkeri, Ponnampet, and Hudigere (22nd Feb); visited Virajpet, Bellur, Somwarpet, Gundagutti, and halted at Madikeri (23rd Feb); Sampaje, Sullia, Puttur, Uppinangadi, Vittala, Kannadaka, Pane Mangalore, Bantwal and halted at Mangalore (24th February); visited Gurupura, Bajpe, Katilu, Kengoli, Mulki, Padabidri, Kapu, Ratapadi, Udayavara, Udupi, Brahmavara (25th February) and halted at Kundapur (25th and 26th February); Bhatkal, Honnavara, Kadri and halted at Karwar (27th); Binaga, Chandiya, Ankola, Hiregutti, Mandageri, Kumta, Ammanapalli, Hegde and halted at Sirsi (28th February); Kanasur, Siddapur, Dasanakoppa, Isur, Yakkambi, Samasaji, Allur, Devi Hosur, Haveri, Byadgi, Motebennur, Murughamut and halted at Haveri (1st March); visited Ranebennur, Harihara, Davanagere, Duggatti, Bennihal, Harapanahalli, Kottur, Kudligi, Kanavihalli and halted at Sandur (2nd March); Bellary, Hospet, Banapura, Gadag, Jakkali and halted at Hubli (3rd March); Dharwad, Marewada, Amminabhavi, Moraba, Harobidi, Hongala, Uppina Betageri, Hirehullekere, Saundatti, Gural Hosur, Bailhongal, Sampagaon and Bagewadi (4th March) halted at Begaum ( 4th and 5th March); visited Tondekatte and returned to Belgaum (6th March); visited Yamakamaradi, Ontamuri, Hukkeri,
Gokak, Sankeshwar, Gadihingalga, Hattikanagale, Nippani, Bhoj, Havinhal, Kotahalli, Dholagarawadi, Chikkodi, Ankali and halted at Shedbal (7th March). On 8th March after visiting Mangasuli, Banahatti, Athani, Honnawad, Tikota, Toravi, Bijapur and Ilkal; via Jorapur proceeded towards Hyderabad. This tour of more than two months duration brought social awareness and the downtrodden mass ( whom he called Harijans) started gaining self-confidence and moral courage.

Later in 1936 due to High Blood Pressure, Gandhiji again fell ill. He was advised to take rest. Hence he came to stay at Nandi Hills during May 1936. During this stay (11th May-30th May) he recovered speedily. On 31st May he left Nandi and reached Bangalore, after visiting Chikballapur, Sidlaghatta, Chintamani, Kolar, Bangarpet and KGF, the same night via Malur he reached Bangalore and stayed upto 10-6-1936. After visiting Kengeri he left for Madras on 11-6-1936. This was his last visit to Bangalore and Princely State of Mysore .

During 1937 April, Gandhi visited Hudali (in Belgaum District), an important Khadi Centres, to inaugurate the Khadi Exhibition. He stayed there from 16th April to 21st April. It was his last visit to Karnataka . After this, till his death in 1948, somehow he could not visit this region which was one of his favourite and affectionate area in the Country.

Amidst all these, although there were no agitations in Princely States till 1937, the people of Mysore State founded Mysore Congress in that year, and launched the Flag Satyagraha in 1938 by organising the first session of the Mysore Congress at Shivapura (Mandya District). The Vidhurashwatha (Kolar District) tragedy followed soon after in which 10 were killed by police fire. This was followed by the movement for responsible government in 1939. T. Siddalingaiah, H.C. Dasappa, S. Siddayya, K.C. Reddy, H.K. Veeranna Gowda, K.T. Bhashyam, T.Subramanyam, K. Hanumanthaiah, S. Nijalingappa, M.N. Jois and Smt. Yashodhara Dasappa were some of the important leaders of Mysore Congress. Similarly the Hyderabad Congress was launched in 1938, and it made a strong demand for responsible government. Likewise in other Princely States of Karnataka also, a strong demand for responsible government was launched under the guidance of the National Congress.

“Quit India Movement” 1942-43.
The Quit India Movement saw unprecedented awakening in Karnataka . Students in all colleges and schools went on strike. Labourers in Bangalore and other places, numbering over 30,000, also struck work for over two weeks. ver 50 people (of whom 11 from Bangalore alone) fell victims to firing by the police. Seven from Bailhongal, seven from Davangere, six from Shravanabelgola were martyrs of the Quit India Movement. Death of Mailara Mahadevappa and two of his companions in Haveri District was a serious tragedy. The Isur village in Shimoga district which demonstrated unbridled fury against the British had five of its heroes hanged. A total of 15,000 people out of which 10,000 from Princely Mysore alone) went to jail in 1942-43 from Karnataka . Dharwad and Belgaum areas, evidenced heroic sabotage and subversive works by organised group of patriots, which became famous as “Karnataka Pattern” praised even by Jayaprakash Narayan.

Even after India becoming free in 1947, Hyderabad Karnatak region could be liberated only after the Police Action in 1948. Among the men who organized Congress, Ramananda Teertha, Janardanrao Desai, G. Ramachar, Krishnacharya Joshi, A. Shivamurthy Swamy and Sharanagouda Inamda r were the noted leaders from Hyderabad Karnatak area. In Mysore State an agitation called “Mysore Chalo” was launched for the establishment of responsible government. The agitation succeeded, and a team of ministers headed by K.Chengalaraya Reddy as the Chief Minister, took charge of the administration in October, 1947. Later he was succeeded by K. Hanumanthaiah (1952) and Kadidal Manjappa (1956) as Chief Ministers in the erstwhile Mysore State. To Hanumanthaiah goes the credit of raising Vidhana Saudha, the biggest building in granite of modern times.

Daily newspapers like the Taruna Kamataka’ (Hubli), the ‘Samyuktha Karnataka ’, (Belgaum, and later Hubli), the ‘Janavani’, the Tayinadu*, ‘Navajeevana’, ‘Veerakesarf and Vishwa Karnataka ’ (all from Bangalore) and ‘Kodagu’ (Weekly) from Madikeri rendered yeoman service to the movement. Women also came to the fore and participated in processions and the picketing of liquor shops and pro-British establishments braved lathi blows and went to jail with babies in arm. Mention  can be made of Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya, Umabai Kundapur, Krishnabai Panjekar, Yashodhara Dasappa, Siddamma Bellary and Gauramma Venkataramaiah who were in the forefront of the movement.

Unification of Karnataka
After independence, a persistent effort had to be made for the Unification of Karnataka . The movement for Unification, had been, infact, launched together with the movement for freedom in Karnataka . Before independence, Karnataka had been distributed among as many as 20 administrations and the handicaps and sufferings of the people of Karnataka in those days were severe. In a Kannada area like Mudhol, ruled by a Maratha Prince, there were no Kannada schools and the administration was conducted in Marathi. This was the case with many Maratha States. In Hyderbad State, Urdu dominated. In big British Presidencies like Bombay or Madras, where Kannada districts were few and he Kannadigas were in a minority, their sufferings were many. They had no just share in the development activities. They could not secure minimum facilities like roads or bridges. Everywhere the voice of the Kannadiga was a voice in the wilderness.

The Renaissance had also created a strong yearning for Unification. Dharwad was the centre of the movement, and Alur Venkatarao was the brain behind it. He had supporters like Mudavidu Krishnarao, Kadapa Raghavendra Rao and Gadigayya Honnapurmath. The Karnataka Sahithya Parishat was founded (1915) at Bangalore partially by the efforts of these people, and it provided a forum for the writers and intellectuals of Karnataka . The writers and Journalists met annually at the Kannada Literary Conference organised by the Parishat and finally the first Karnataka State Political Conference held at Dharwad (1920) decided to agitate for Unification through the Congress organisation too. The Nagpur Congress agreed to establish the K.P.C.C. in that year. Thus Unification, initially an idea of the Kannada writers and journalists, secured the support of the politicians. The first Unification Conference was held at Belgaum in 1924 during the Belgaum Congress, with Siddappa Kambli as its president. Nine such conferences were held till the dawn of Independence, and afterwards, Karnataka came under five administrations in 1947,viz., (1) Bombay (2) Madras (3) Kodagu (4) Mysore and (5) Hyderabad states (instead of 20). Minor Princely States like Jamkhandi, Ramadurg, Mudhol, Sandur etc. numbering 15 have been merged with neighbouring districts soon after independence.

From 1947, Unification was a demand that had to be urged upon the Government of India. But this also had to be a serious movement. In 1953, the Akhanda Karnataka Rajya Nirmana Parishat, a newly founded party with K.R. Karanth as the President, had to launch a major Sathyagraha and more than 5,000 people courted arrest. Finally, the Fazl Ali Commission was appointed, and according to its recommendations, linguistically united Mysore State (Karnataka ) came into existence on the 1st November 1956 and S.Nijalingappa became its Chief Minister. Later, during D. Devaraj Urs’s regime, it was named as Karnataka , a long cherished aspiration of the Kannadigas
in 1973.

GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS
The election results in the State reflect the political mood and changes in the administrative set up of the State. While furnishing the results for the 1957, 1962 and 1967 elections, political parties which have secured seats in the elections alone are mentioned. After 1972 the number of candidates contested and elected from each party and the percentage of votes obtained by them are also given. From 1998, election statistics given here include details relating to male and female contestants of each party also.

Lok Sabha, 1952: Before unification (1956), there were only 9 constifuencies and of them, two were double member constituencies. Of them 10 were secured by INC and the remaining one was won by Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party (KMPP)

Vidhana Soudha, 1952: During this election, there were 80  onstituencies and of them 19 were double member constituencies. Of the 99 seats 72 seats won by INC, nine seats went to KMPP and eleven seats were secured by Independents. SOP secured 4, SCF 2 and CPI secured one seat.

Lok Sabha, 1957: (Total No. of seats 26) (Double member constituencies 3) Indian National Congress - 23; Praja Socialist Party - 1; Scheduled Castes Federation - 1 ; Independents-1. Legislative Assembly, 1957: (Total No. of seats: 208) (Double member constituencies-29) Indian National Congress-149; Praja Socialist Party-18;
Scheduled Castes Federation-2; Peasants and Workers Party-2; communist Party of India-1 ; Independents-36. Lok Sabha, 1962: (Total No.of seats-26) (Double member constituencies were abolished) Indian National Congress - 25; Lok Sevak Sangha - 1.

Legislative Assembly, 1962: (Total No.of seats - 208;) (Double member constituencies were abolished) Indian National Congress - 138; Swatantra Party-  8; Praja Socialist Party-20; Maharashtra Ekikarana Samiti-6; Lok Sevak Sangha- 4; Communist Party of India-3; Socialist Party-1; Independents-28. Lok Sabha, 1967: (Total No. of seats-27) Indian National Congress-18; Swatantra Party-5; Praja Socialist Party-2; Samyukta Socialist Party-1; Independents-1.

Legislative Assembly, 1967: (Total No.of seats - 216) Indian National Congress -123; Praja Socialist Party-22; Swatantra Party-17; Samyukta Socialist Party-6;
Bharatiya Jan Sangh-4; Communist party of India-1; Independents -41.

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